Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Areas and Courses of Study

The courses listed on the following pages are expected to be offered by Yale Divinity School in 2016–2017. The letter “a” following the course number denotes the fall term, and the letter “b” following the course number denotes the spring term. “H” indicates a hybrid course. Normally, courses numbered in the 500s carry Area I credit, with those in the 600s carrying Area II credit, those in the 700s carrying Area III credit, those in the 800s carrying Area IV credit, and those in the 900s carrying Area V credit. Courses with a four-digit number are generally eligible for elective credit only. Unless otherwise noted, all courses are for three hours of credit each term. Courses with the designation REL are offered by YDS. Those with an RLST designation are offered by the Department of Religious Studies of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.

Listed near the end of this chapter, under Courses without Area Designations, are those courses that do not normally count toward fulfillment of the area distribution requirements described in the chapter Programs of Study: elementary biblical languages, denominational colloquia, Supervised Ministry practica, M.A.R. and S.T.M. theses or projects, the ISM colloquium, the ministerial relationships workshop, and the weekend series of courses on leadership for church and society.

In addition to the curricular offerings specified below, students may arrange special reading courses with individual faculty members (see Reading Courses in chapter on Other Curricular Considerations). Courses on special topics of interest to a group of students may also be planned and approved for credit, to run for a period of weeks or for an entire term.

Students are encouraged by the faculty to take courses in other schools and departments of the University. (See also Interdepartmental Studies in the chapter Other Curricular Considerations.) In each case, prior consent must be received from the instructor. For a complete listing of the offerings, consult the bulletins of the Graduate School and the professional schools, Yale College Programs of Study, or Yale’s Online Course Information (OCI) site at http://students.yale.edu/oci.

Courses with numbers lower than 500 are undergraduate courses. Additional work is normally required in undergraduate courses presented for YDS credit. For credit toward a Divinity degree, the student must secure the permission of the instructor and have the instructor communicate to the Divinity academic dean the graduate-level evaluative measures to which the student will be held. Normally, graduate-level parameters would involve an enhanced research component and/or a term paper significantly longer than the paper required of the undergraduates enrolled in the class.

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Area I: Biblical Studies

This area is concerned with the interpretation of the Christian Scriptures in the broadest sense, including the study of the classical biblical languages (Hebrew and Greek), the content of the Old and New Testaments, critical methods of interpretation, biblical history, cultural and historical milieu of the Bible, and the theological and pastoral implications of the text.

  • 1. Introductory courses are offered in the critical study of the Old and New Testaments. Except for the language courses, all courses in Area I normally have these foundation courses (or their equivalent) as prerequisites.
  • 2. Language courses are offered at the elementary, intermediate, and advanced levels. Generally, elementary biblical languages are eligible for elective credit only.
  • 3. Three types of exegesis courses are offered: those based on the English text; those based on the original text and requiring a working knowledge of the biblical language; and advanced exegesis seminars that require at least an intermediate knowledge of the biblical language. Exegesis courses of each type are offered each term on selected books or topics from the Old and New Testaments. It is possible, therefore, during the course of one’s program, to engage in detailed exegesis of representative sections of the biblical text.
  • 4. Thematic courses are offered on a wide range of theological and historical issues raised by the scriptures. These include courses on the cultural and historical milieu of the Bible.
  • 5. Advanced seminars are designed for YDS students with the requisite background and qualifications, and for doctoral students. Permission to enroll in these seminars must be received from the individual instructor.
  • 6. Area I is also concerned with examining the implications of the scriptures for the contemporary church. In addition to doing this in courses offered specifically in Area I, members of the faculty in Area I join with other faculty members in offering courses dealing with the use of the Bible in Christian ministry.

YDS offers intensive courses in elementary Biblical Hebrew and elementary New Testament Greek for six weeks during the summer. Such work earns six hours of academic credit and prepares the student for the course in exegesis. Summer work will satisfy most denominational language requirements.

Critical Introductions

REL 500a, Old Testament Interpretation The first half of a two-term introduction to the content of and basic critical approaches to the Old Testament (Genesis through 2 Kings). Joel S. Baden

REL 500b, Old Testament Interpretation A continuation of REL 500a. This course introduces students to critical study of the Prophetic Books and Writings (Psalms, Wisdom) of the Old Testament. John J. Collins

REL 501a, New Testament Interpretation The first half of a two-term introduction to the literature of the New Testament and to the methods and resources useful for interpreting that literature. The course also highlights the living character of New Testament traditions for various communities, in distinct venues and modes, in different times and locales. Over the course of the year, the course aims to (1) provide guidance in the art and methods of exegesis, broadly conceived; (2) nurture students’ sensitivity to the importance of social location in the interpretation of Christian Scripture; and (3) introduce students to distinct modes of reading the New Testament. Term one introduces students to basic exegetical skills and tools of historical interpretation, focusing on the Gospels and Acts. Harold W. Attridge, Yii-Jan Lin

REL 501b, New Testament Interpretation A continuation of REL 501a, expanding the skill base to other modes of interpretation. The spring term is devoted to a study of the Pauline letters, pastoral and catholic epistles, and the Apocalypse of John. Harold W. Attridge, Yii-Jan Lin

Biblical Languages

Note: Elementary biblical languages are listed near the end of this chapter under Courses without Area Designations.

REL 518a, Intermediate Koine Greek A sequel to Elementary Greek, this intermediate Koine Greek course prepares students for advanced Greek exegesis courses. Class time is spent on translation of New Testament texts, discussion of Greek syntax, sight-reading of Greek texts outside the New Testament, and grammar review. Quizzes and exams test vocabulary building and grammar review. Students gain practice in using Greek lexica, advanced Greek grammars, and other reference works for the study of the Greek New Testament. Judith M. Gundry

REL 574a and b, Intermediate Biblical Hebrew This course focuses on the reading of biblical texts but also offers a review of the elementary grammar of Biblical Hebrew and the introduction of more complicated grammatical concerns. More specifically, the first term focuses on prose texts and reviews the morphology of verbs and nouns as well as basic components of Hebrew syntax; the second term introduces students to Biblical Hebrew poetry while continuing the study and review of Hebrew morphology and syntax. In addition, the form and function of Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) are introduced. Eric D. Reymond

REL 576a, Advanced Biblical Hebrew Prose This course examines topics in the grammatical and syntactical analysis of Biblical Hebrew prose. It introduces students to the fine points of the Hebrew grammar and syntax so that students are capable of reading the biblical text fluently and carefully. Joel S. Baden

REL 577b, Advanced Biblical Hebrew This course explores the language of Biblical Hebrew writings, primarily through a close study of text specimens written in vocalized and unvocalized Hebrew. Students study both prose and poetic texts. The course focuses on the grammar of the language, exploring in great detail matters of orthography, phonology, morphology, and syntax. This course builds on the students’ familiarity with grammar as studied at the intermediate level. Eric D. Reymond

Exegesis Based on the Original Language

REL 581a, Greek Exegesis: Mark Through reading and analysis of the Greek text of the Gospel of Mark, this course aims to familiarize students with the cultural-historical context of the gospel and critical text and translation issues. Secondary readings and class discussion also focus on literary, theological, and explicitly contextual interpretations of the text. Yii-Jan Lin

REL 583a, Hebrew Exegesis: The Book of Micah This exegetically focused course explores literary, theological, and hermeneutical issues involved in interpreting the book of Micah. Paying close attention to the Hebrew text, the course considers the diction, themes, literary artistry, and rhetorical power of this prophetic discourse. A systematic review of Hebrew grammar is not the focus of this course; those who need such review should take Intermediate Biblical Hebrew (REL 574) instead. Consideration of grammar and syntax are subordinated to the larger interpretive issues involved in appreciating the literary artistry of Micah and assessing secondary scholarship on it. Carolyn J. Sharp

REL 588b, Greek Exegesis: Paul’s Letter to the Romans No other letter in the New Testament has had as much impact on the history of Christianity as Romans. From the garden in which Augustine heard a voice reading from Romans that led to his conversion, through Luther’s lectures on it at the University of Wittenberg in 1515–16, until Karl Barth wrote his famous commentary that changed the landscape of Protestant theology in the early twentieth century, Romans has played a significant role in pivotal moments. This course consists of a close reading of the Greek text of Romans. The class also explores some of the larger issues raised both by the text and by its reception throughout Christian history and in the contemporary church. Gregory E. Sterling

RLST 801b, Hebrew Bible Seminar: Prophetic Stories in Kings A close reading of the Hebrew text of the prophetic stories in the Books of Kings, with particular attention to their possible oral origin and present literary function. The sociological and religious perspective of the stories is also considered. Prerequisite: two years of Biblical Hebrew or the equivalent. Robert R. Wilson

Graduate Seminars in Biblical and Cognate Studies

REL 539b, English Exegesis of Revelation This course considers the literary structure, genre, and cultural-historical context of the Revelation of John through close reading and discussion of the text. Secondary readings familiarize students with major themes in reception history, social-cultural influences, and theological interpretations, with special attention to utopic/dystopic interpretations in minoritized and marginalized communities. Yii-Jan Lin

REL 540a/NELC 515a, The Bible in Its Ancient Near Eastern Setting History of the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian empires of the first millennium B.C.E., and how their rise and fall influenced the politics, religion, and literary traditions of biblical Israel. Topics include the role of prophecy and (divine) law, political and religious justifications of violence, the birth of monotheism, and the historical reliability of the Hebrew Bible. Eckart Frahm

REL 541a, Literary Criticism of the Hebrew Scriptures Lively and productive tensions have been generated within biblical studies concerning the strengths and vulnerabilities of contemporary literary analysis and the challenges that such analysis has posed to the historical-critical paradigm. Historicizing approaches that focus on the genetics and provenance of biblical texts have been found less than satisfying by literary-minded scholars who value attentiveness to the literary artistry of ancient texts as coherent cultural productions. But literary criticism has itself come under fire from several directions. Challenges have been posed by ideological critics who view texts as implicated in the performance of power relations and who deplore the failure of some historicist and literary-critical readers to take full account of social and political dimensions of texts and interpretations. Objections to literary criticism have also been raised by poststructuralists seeking to destabilize traditional notions of author, determinate meaning, and other foundational assumptions guiding the work of many historical positivists and modernist literary critics. This course assesses the classic contributions of Robert Alter and Meir Sternberg to literary criticism of the Hebrew Scriptures. It then engages a variety of topics in literary criticism, including developments in genre criticism; diverse construals of authorial intention and reader agency; critical analysis of aspects of plot, narratorial voice, characterization, and operations of metaphor and irony; and the theorizing of intertextuality. Carolyn J. Sharp

REL 543a, Sectarian Movement of the Dead Sea Scrolls This course provides a close reading of the Community Rule from Qumran and related texts with the objective of understanding the nature of the sectarian community in the scrolls. John J. Collins

REL 544a, History and Methods of Old Testament Interpretation I In this course, students report on classic secondary works from the history of Old Testament scholarship. John J. Collins, Joel S. Baden

REL 555b/EGYP 514b/RLST 653b, Gnostic Texts in Coptic The course reads selected portions of important texts from the Nag Hammadi collection, including the Apocryphon of John, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Truth, Thunder, the Treatise on Resurrection, the Tripartite Tractate, as well as other noncanonical texts preserved in Coptic, including the Gospel of Mary and the Gospel of Judas. Prerequisite: Elementary Biblical Coptic or equivalent. Harold W. Attridge

REL 557b, The Messiah: The Development of a Biblical Idea This course reviews the origin and ideology of kingship in ancient Israel and the development of messianic expectation in Second Temple Judaism, including the Dead Sea Scrolls. John J. Collins

REL 568b, Women and Gender in Early Christianity Was the early Jesus movement a discipleship of equals? Did women exercise the most authoritative roles in the early church? Was gender equality attained through erasure of the difference between male and female, in baptism, or through sexual asceticism? Did love patriarchalism overtake gender equality in the post-apostolic period? What can be reconstructed about early Christian women’s lives from the New Testament and other ancient sources? How did early Christian ideas about koinonia, the gifts of the Spirit, marriage, sex, and procreation affect the roles of women and men in these communities? This course explores such questions by studying the key early Christian primary sources together with Second Temple Jewish and Greco-Roman sources on women and gender, and by drawing on the wealth of secondary literature on these subjects. The aim is to encourage a critical and historically informed understanding of the key primary texts and provide an exposure to a variety of contemporary perspectives and interpretations of this material. Judith M. Gundry

RLST 605a, Greco-Roman Proseminar The proseminar in Greco-Roman backgrounds is designed for doctoral students in the fields of New Testament and ancient Christianity. It familiarizes students with philosophical, literary, and religious texts from Greco-Roman antiquity, as well as evidence of material culture relevant to the study of early Christian literature. Master’s-level students may be admitted by permission of the instructor. Harold W. Attridge

RLST 802b, Apocalyptic Religion in Cross-Cultural Perspective An examination of millennial and “end-time” beliefs in a variety of cultures and religions around the world. Attention is given to Jewish and Christian texts as well as Native American traditions; African, Middle Eastern, and Asian religious movements; and modern manifestations such as Jonestown, Heaven’s Gate, Waco, the Oklahoma City bombing, and Isis violence. The course includes a general consideration of religious violence in apocalyptic movements, as well as an exploration of how groups react to the failure of the apocalypse to occur. Robert R. Wilson

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Area II: Theological Studies

The work of this area includes analysis of the development, thought, and institutional life of the Christian community in various periods and contexts, and training in the substance and forms of theological positions and argumentation.

  • 1. The comprehensive purpose of the courses designated Theological Studies is to foster an understanding of the classical theological tradition of Christianity, acquaint the students with contemporary theological thought, and develop the skills necessary to engage effectively in critical analysis and constructive argument.
  • 2. Christian Ethics as a discipline gives attention to the moral strand within Christian belief by offering opportunities for systematic study of foundational aspects of the moral life, formulation of constructive proposals regarding ethical issues, and rigorous thinking regarding action guidance.
  • 3. Liturgical Studies is intended to foster a serious and scholarly engagement with the origins and historical evolution of inherited patterns of worship, and to prepare the students to lead the worship of contemporary Christian communities with competence and sensitivity.
  • 4. The Denominational Courses are offered primarily, although not exclusively, for the constituencies of particular denominations. Distributional credit in Area II will be granted for only one denominational course.


REL 600a, Introduction to Theology The aim of this course is for students to gain a working knowledge of the vocabulary, topics, and history of Christian theology; to spark their interest in theology; and to give them the beginnings of the theological literacy needed to take part in cultural contestations over religion, in church and/or in their own decisions about faith and practice. No particular faith commitment or background is assumed. Linn Marie Tonstad

REL 602a, Work, Debt, and Christian Witness The course discusses the changing nature of work and the growing role of debt within the U.S. economy. A variety of theoretical resources for understanding these changes is explored, along with theological perspectives on them. Kathryn E. Tanner

REL 605a, Black Theology This course considers varied black theological traditions. It inquires, “What does it mean to be black and Christian (and, by extension, to be black, Christian, and poor; black, Christian, and woman; black, Christian, and sexually minoritized; black, Christian, and diasporan immigrant; and/or any aggregation of these social indicators) amidst racist, sexist, heterosexist, and xenophobic social contexts and theological metanarratives rooted in white cisgendered heteronormativity?” In light of black realities, black theology asks, “Who is God and who is God in Christ for those who live and move and have their being in the margins of church and society?” Students preliminarily engage the underpinnings of the black radical tradition as a proto-black theological response to anti-black racism in the United States. Students further engage the substantial intracommunal critique of black theological method. The course concludes with an examination of the problem of ontological blackness, as well as an abbreviated consideration of the peril and promise that varieties of blacknesses and black religious experience hold for the Black Church and for black theological and praxeological tasks in the twenty-first century. Eboni Marshall Turman

REL 609a, Theology of the Lutheran Confessions Through lectures, assigned readings, and class discussion, this course examines the Book of Concord of 1580 and certain other documents that served as sources for the Book of Concord. The objectives of the course are twofold: to develop a knowledge and understanding of the Lutheran Confessions in their original context and to gain an appreciation of the contemporary importance and influence of these Confessions for Christianity in the twenty-first century. Given the nature of Lutheranism, what resources does it have in this century to proclaim the Christian faith and provide guidance for the Christian life? William G. Rusch

REL 620a, History of Early Christian Theology An introduction to Christian theology and practice from the close of the New Testament through the period of the seven ecumenical councils and the major patristic theologians. The formative early centuries of Christianity are known as the “patristic period,” so named for the early fathers and mothers of the faith. This course takes a comprehensive approach to early Christianity, concentrating on the church’s faith-experience in light of its understanding of God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, and the Church, as well as biblical interpretation, theological anthropology, worship, spirituality, ethics, social realities, and political life. The course also includes a practical ministry module for those who wish to engage in a special ministry project as part of the regular course work. Christopher A. Beeley

REL 621b, Medieval Theology Survey This course is a survey of theological themes in the West and in the period from Augustine until the end of the Middle Ages, including (among many others) the role and interpretation of Scripture; the distinction between the contemplative and the active lives; doctrines of grace, sacraments, and prayer; monastic, university-based, and vernacular styles of theology; the emergence of a distinctive women’s voice in the high and late Middle Ages; and other topics of interest to those who wish to be theologically informed in even an elementary way. Denys A. Turner

REL 622a, Liberation Theologies in the United States This course introduces students to various U.S. theologies of liberation—black, feminist, womanist, mujerista, Latino/a, American indigenous, Asian, Asian feminist, and queer theologies—that have developed over the course of the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries as theoretical and practical responses to the problem of human suffering. The course explores key aspects of how liberation theologians have grounded their advocacy of sociopolitical transformation in their respective understandings of God’s identity and God’s plan for humankind and the world. Distinctive features of liberationist theological approaches to doctrine and dominant theological themes are explored. Emphasis is placed on the relevance and future of liberation theologies for the twenty-first century church in the United States. Eboni Marshall Turman

REL 623b, Theologies of Religious Pluralism This course explores the primary theological perspectives through which Christians interpret the fact of religious pluralism and the substance of diverse religious traditions. It also introduces students to the area of comparative theology. The primary aim of the course is to allow students to develop a constructive theology of religious pluralism to support leadership for religious communities in pluralistic societies, participation in interreligious dialogue, and engagement with the reality of multiple religious practice and belonging. S. Mark Heim

REL 626b, Systematic Theology This course introduces students to the art of Christian theological reflection. It initiates students in the practice of systematic thinking by exploring the interconnections between contemporary issues, doctrines, and the perennial challenges that are central to Christian faith and life. The central purpose of the course is to expose students to the inner logics of Christian thought. Willie J. Jennings

REL 627a, Passion and Atonement: The Cross in Contemporary Theological Discussion This course explores the significance of the death of Jesus and engages contemporary discussion of theologies of atonement. The objectives of the course are for students to (1) demonstrate knowledge of major interpretive views of the cross in the Christian theological tradition; (2) demonstrate understanding of major contemporary criticisms of atonement doctrine and some major reconstructions of it; (3) demonstrate knowledge of the work of René Girard and its relevance for theological reflection; and (4) develop and state their own theological framework for addressing these issues personally, pastorally, and institutionally. S. Mark Heim

REL 649a, Christ and the Bodhisattva: Comparative Theology and Buddhist Wisdom This course provides a brief introduction to the general field of comparative theology, a basic orientation to Mahayana Buddhist teaching and practice (with a particular focus on the case of the bodhisattva through the lens of Shantideva’s classic The Way of the Bodhisattva), and an exploration of Christian comparative reflection on these sources. The class engages several prominent theologians working in the Buddhist-Christian theological conversation and explores the ways in which Christian thought and practice can be informed by comparative learning from Buddhist sources. S. Mark Heim

REL 650b, Sacrifice: Gift, Ritual, and Violence in Early Christianity This course considers how Christianity developed its understandings and practices in relation to sacrifice, including its relations with Greco-Roman and Jewish texts and rituals, in the first four centuries C.E. Attention is paid to significant theoretical perspectives on sacrifice from anthropological and theological discourse, and to ancient texts, from the Bible to Augustine of Hippo. Andrew B. McGowan

REL 651a, Digital Media, Liturgy, and Theology This course—the first at YDS to focus on digital cultures—enquires into ecclesial practices that have migrated online and are digitally mediated, especially those of prayer and worship. In recent years, both very old and entirely new liturgical practices have flourished in digital social space, from the live streaming of worship services to digital prayer chapels, virtual choirs, online pilgrimages, and digitally mediated devotions such as daily prayer via tweets or “pray-as-you-go” apps. Some communities have experimented with so-called cyber-baptisms and cyber-communions. And cyberspace hosts communities of faith that exist only online, for example, in Web-based interactive virtual reality environments. This course brings the tools and insights of new media theories, liturgical studies, and constructive theology to the enquiry into these ecclesial practices. Teresa Berger, Kathryn E. Tanner

REL 660a, Queer Theology This course provides an introduction to queer theology, its theoretical grounding in queer theory, and some of the controversies and possibilities that make up its current shape. Questions considered include whether Christianity can or should be queer; what might be the implications for Christian thought and practice of contemporary debates in queer theory over temporality, futurity, sociality, and spatiality; how to use art and performance as theological sources; and the way queer theory’s anti-essentialist stance shifts the terms of debates over the status of LGBTQ persons in Christianity. The course also considers the impact of HIV/AIDS on notions of community formation, risk, and finitude. Linn Marie Tonstad

REL 674b, Eschatology, Apocalypse, Utopia In recent years, Christian eschatology has often been critiqued for its world-denying tendencies that place the possibility of human fulfillment in some currently unattainable future, thus negating the value and meaning of life here and now—the classic critique of the masters of suspicion (Feuerbach, Marx, Nietzsche). Apocalyptic has been charged with violent and often gendered imagery that denies the goodness of creation and rejoices in the destruction of the wicked. Utopic imaginations have come under suspicion as escapist fantasies that refuse to grapple with the world as it is. This course examines texts that fall into (and sometimes trouble) these three categories, with attention to whether these critiques are accurate, and to the possibilities of revisioning the world that each proposal entails. Linn Marie Tonstad

REL 679a, Slavery and Obedience This course considers the theological architecture of Christian obedience. Students examine obedience in relation to its historic social couplet—slavery. Slavery, especially in its modernist reformulation from the fifteenth century forward, framed the problems of Christian obedience with great urgency. The articulation of Christian obedience is plagued with two problems: problems of identity (Who obeys whom?) and problems of time (What is the relation of ancient forms and regimes of obedience to current forms and regimes of obedience?). These two problems build from a more basic theological challenge of articulation—What is the relationship of the obedience of Jesus to our obedience? The goal of this course is to formulate a theology of obedience that is attuned to questions of gendered and racial identities and history, as well as the ongoing realities of slavery’s social and economic echoes. Such a theology would articulate more deeply what it means to be an obedient church. Willie J. Jennings

REL 687a, English Reformation Liturgical Traditions and the Evolution of the Books of Common Prayer This course falls into two sections. The first covers the period 1500–1789 and is concerned with the development and theologies of the Reformation liturgical traditions in England and Scotland. The second is concerned with the specifically Anglican tradition, with the impact of the Tractarian and Liturgical Movements to the present. It compares the 1979 Book of Common Prayer and Enriching Our Worship with The Book of Common Prayer of the Church of Ireland, 2004. Bryan D. Spinks

Christian Ethics

REL 615b, Introduction to Christian Ethics This course is an introduction to Christian moral norms, ideals, and practices, and to modern disputes over their substance. Drawing upon historical and contemporary sources, the course examines what difference (if any) Christian commitment makes for moral assessment—for considering the ends we endorse or condemn, the actions we praise or prohibit, the traits of character we extol or admonish. On this basis, the class explores how Christians might respond to a number of problems facing our social moment. How, in other words, shall Christians love God and neighbor, show hospitality to strangers, and speak truth to power in these modern times? There is special emphasis throughout on selected current issues: poverty, race, gender, sex, violence, and the role of faith in public life. Adam Eitel

REL 631a, Theological Ethics This course grapples with some of the basic (albeit deeply contested) ideas by which Christian moral discourse is governed. Students examine theological accounts of what it means to live well, focusing mainly on classical and contemporary works of relevance to central problems in the academic study of Christian ethics: whether teleological conceptions of human flourishing comport with scripture; whether certain moral obligations can be universally applied to all; the sources of human action; the ethical significance of divine commands; and the concepts of virtue, goodness, evil, horror, and the sacred. Adam Eitel

REL 642a, Virtue and Christian Ethics Virtue ethics today is an important site for reflection on intention and human acts, exemplarity and tradition, emotion and reason, flourishing and happiness. Within theological ethics, the retrieval of virtue has led to an emphasis on the formation of Christian character in relation to scripture, worship, and other practices; the exemplarity of Christ and the saints; and tradition more broadly. Yet many questions remain: Is virtue ethics inherently conservative? Do we really have reliable dispositions? Did Christian ethics succeed in “baptizing” pagan virtue? Authors include Thomas Aquinas, Julia Annas, Jean Porter, Robert M. Adams, Rosalind Hursthouse, Alasdair MacIntyre, and Stanley Hauerwas. Jennifer A. Herdt

REL 652a, Agency, Character, and Complicity Christians confess that we live in a fallen world, one created in goodness but nevertheless full of harm, suffering, and loss. Some of those harms we bring about directly and on our own; others are mediated by social, economic, and political practices in which our perceptible impact is vanishingly small. Irrespective of their causes, perhaps most instances of harm should elicit our sorrow, even if no one is to blame; others are rightly called wrongs and should elicit our anger—to say nothing of repentance, resistance, and rebuke. Yet, a number of puzzles enter when it comes to spelling out the warrants for these very different kinds of response: What are the sources of wrongdoing? Is it necessarily irrational? What distinguishes wrongdoing from lamentable albeit blameless instances of harm? Are we morally responsible for the distant harms spawned, say, by our participation in seemingly benign market transactions? This seminar examines classical and contemporary work on agency, with an interest in exploring these questions. The inquiry is divided into three parts: (1) consideration of Thomas Aquinas’s widely influential account of human agency; (2) discussion of important philosophical work on intention, character, and rationality; and (3) analysis of recent discussions of complicity and moral responsibility. Adam Eitel

Liturgical Studies

REL 653b, Words for Worship The aim of this course is to explore the ways in which language is used in Christian worship so that, as participants and worship leaders, students will be sensitive to how meaning is conveyed through specific choices in their own church about types of language and texts, and in relation to ritual elements of worship. Students are taught and practice a range of interpretative strategies and are expected to use these to make independent evaluations. The written reflections and oral presentations aim to help them articulate their ideas in institutional and catechetical contexts. Juliette Jacqueline Day

REL 682a, Foundations of Christian Worship This is the core course in Liturgical Studies. The course focuses on theological and historical approaches to the study of Christian worship, with appropriate attention to cultural context and contemporary issues. The first part of the course seeks to familiarize students with the foundations of communal, public prayer in the Christian tradition (such as its roots in Hebrew Scripture and the New Testament; its Trinitarian source and direction; its ways of figuring time, space, and human embodiment; its use of language, music, the visual arts, etc.). The second part of the course offers a sketch of historical developments, from earliest Christian communities to present times. In addition, select class sessions focus on questions of overall importance for liturgical life, such as the relationship between gender differences and worship life, and the contemporary migration of liturgical practices into cyberspace. Bryan D. Spinks, Melanie C. Ross

REL 683b/MUSI 627b, The Liturgy, Ritual, and Chant of Medieval England (Sarum Use) This course focuses on the rites, ceremonies, and music of the Use of Sarum, which was the predominant Use for services in the late medieval period in England. It includes preliminary study of the emergence of the Romano-Western liturgical synthesis and considers some of the Anglo-Saxon representation of this synthesis. It considers the aims of the Anglo-Norman Church and especially the siting and building of the Old Sarum Cathedral. It compares the Sarum Use to those of Rouen, Hereford, and York and examines the new Cathedral of Salisbury and the liturgical implications of its architecture and decoration. It considers the various services of the Use of Sarum and their musical repertories, both monophonic and polyphonic, as well as the wider cultural significance of Sarum traditions beyond the medieval era. Henry Parkes, Bryan D. Spinks

REL 688a, Catholic Liturgy This course offers an introduction to Roman Catholic liturgical traditions and practices. Given the breadth of the subject matter (e.g., 2,000 years of history; complex dogmatic developments; numerous rites, rituals, and rhythms; contemporary tensions), the course attempts to range broadly yet quite selectively. It begins with some theological fundamentals and their historical development before focusing on twentieth-century developments, which are crucial to Catholic liturgical life at this point in the twenty-first century. Key liturgical documents of the past hundred years are read and analyzed. Throughout the course and especially in its second half, attention is paid to the broader cultural realities in which liturgy always finds itself, e.g., gender constructions, ethnic identities, and, more recently, media developments (especially the migration of Catholic liturgical practices into cyberspace). Teresa Berger

REL 697b, Eucharistic Prayers and Eucharistic Theology This course looks at the broad structural development of the Eucharistic liturgy at certain key epochs in the history of the Christian church. However, its main focus is on the central prayer of the rite, the Eucharistic Prayer or Great Thanksgiving. The course examines the theories put forward regarding the prayer’s possible origins and its historical development, its treatment by the various sixteenth- and seventeenth-century reformers, and attitudes toward it during subsequent epochs to the present. The course reflects on the theologies expressed in this prayer genre and considers the corresponding sacramental theology in doctrinal writings on the Eucharist. Bryan D. Spinks

Denominational Courses

Note: Denominational colloquia are listed near the end of this chapter under Courses without Area Designations.

REL 618a, Anglican Theology and History I: Great Britain A survey of the major developments in British Anglican theology, church history, and ecclesiology from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. This course is a companion to Anglican History and Theology II: ECUSA and the Anglican Communion, making a two-term study of the historical evolution and theological traditions of Anglicanism. The two courses may be taken in any order, although there is some advantage to beginning here. The primary aim of the course is to analyze and make a constructive theological assessment of classical Anglican tradition and its modern forms, both as an examination of the enduring nature of Anglicanism and as a pastoral and spiritual resource for Christian life and ministry. Christopher A. Beeley

REL 619a, Anglican Theology and History II: ECUSA and the Anglican Communion This course explores the origins and development of the Episcopal Church and the global Anglican Communion. The class considers the development of the Episcopal Church from colonial origins to a multinational and increasingly multicultural church, with attention to various theological voices and to present polity. The Anglican Communion is explored as an emerging postcolonial network of provinces, subject to contests over the character and identity of Anglicanism that continue to the present. Ian T. Douglas

REL 691a or 691b, Ecclesiology, Ministry, and Polity Lectures on comparative ecclesiology, doctrines of the ministry, and patterns of church polity in Western Christianity. Sections are arranged to enable students to study the history, doctrine, worship, and polity of their own denominations. Sections on Baptist, Lutheran, United Church of Christ, Unitarian Universalist, A.M.E. Zion, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and United Methodist polities are offered, most in alternate years. Staff

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Area III: Historical Studies

The intent of Historical Studies is to foster and demand serious consideration by students of the essential historical substance of Christian faith and tradition. Two aspects of inquiry merge in this area of the curriculum: (1) the development of analytic capacities for the understanding of religious thought and practice in their cultural context, and (2) special studies in the cultural context itself that are deemed essential to competent ministry. Work in this area includes social and cultural analysis often focusing on issues that arise at the intersection of established disciplines. Area III thus includes subjects falling outside the domain of explicitly Christian thought.

REL 700a, Transitional Moments in Western Christian History I: From the First Churches to the Scientific Revolution This course introduces students to the historical study of Christianity by focusing on key moments from the emergence of the first churches to the Reformation of the sixteenth century. Themes include the formation of the canon, martyrdom, early Christian society, monasticism, the crusades, heresy, Luther’s protest, religious wars, and Catholic renewal. In lectures and sections, students examine a range of written and visual materials to discern patterns and diversities of religious experience. Bruce Gordon

REL 700b, Transitional Moments in Western Christian History II: American Religious History This course focuses on critical moments and important developments in the evolution of U.S. Christian cultures from the European conquest to the present. While the approach is loosely chronological, it is not intended as a comprehensive survey. This course instead adopts an approach that views religious belief, institutions, and practices as central in forging communities and maintaining divisions among peoples; it focuses on moments when religion was an important factor in shaping the political and social order it also reflected. From the initial encounters between native peoples, enslaved Africans, and Europeans, to the emergence of a new republic after the Civil War, the class looks both at the ways various peoples in the “New World” came to define themselves through religion and how dominant actors worked to dominate outsiders by employing differing conceptions of religion. Clarence E. Hardy

REL 703a, Methods and Sources of Religious History This course introduces students to the historiography of religious history; to the history of methods, approaches, and problems in the field; and to techniques for using and citing primary and secondary sources in the study of religion. Seminars include lectures, common readings, writing exercises, and presentations by students and visiting scholars. Students develop research proposals related to their specific areas of interest. Tisa J. Wenger

REL 704b/AFAM 776b, “Beyond the Veil”: Approaches to the Study of Black Religion in the United States This course explores how scholars have developed and pursued the modern study of black religion in the United States from its inception in the early decades of the twentieth century, through its institutionalization in the academy after the civil rights movement, and its continued evolution in contemporary times. The course focuses especially on pioneers in the field (e.g., W.E.B. Du Bois, Zora Neale Hurston, and Carter Woodson) and considers the rise of competing methodologies for the study of black religious cultures—ranging from the historical to the sociological, while including at various moments the theological, anthropological, and literary. Special attention is given to the ways in which racial and religious identities have shaped and confounded scholarly efforts to interpret black religious subjects, even as these various identities have also provided a platform for interrogating the meaning of race, nation, and the nature of political commitment in America. Clarence E. Hardy

REL 719a, Finding Spirituality in Modern America This course explores how the evolution of religious identity, expression, and practice in American Christianity during the twentieth century reflected modern attempts for self-actualization. The class considers whether and in what ways spirituality can be a meaningful category to study modern U.S. religious cultures and examines how the language of spirituality has coincided with efforts to define religious experience and reconfigure the character of religious community in modern America. Clarence E. Hardy

REL 720b, Religious Freedom in U.S. History Religious freedom is often affirmed as a founding principle of the United States. A familiar narrative of progress charts the founders’ original goal of ensuring liberty for competing Protestant denominations through the eventual inclusion of Jews, Catholics, and (at least ideally) those who practice any of the world’s religions. Without entirely unseating that narrative, this course aims to complicate it by interrogating the cultural biases, exclusions, and limitations as well as apparent successes of religious freedom through the course of U.S. history. Primary and secondary source readings draw attention to competing discourses of religious freedom as they have developed over time, allowing us to chart the shifting meanings of this ideal in American culture. Along the way we address topics such as the historical formations of secularism, the history of First Amendment jurisprudence, the struggles of religious minorities, debates over school prayer and gay marriage, and the role of religious freedom in U.S. foreign policy. Tisa J. Wenger

REL 733a, Christianities in the Colonized Americas This seminar is primarily a reading course that examines recent works representing new methodological and topical approaches treating the intersection of religion with social, cultural, gender, ethnic, and racial spheres in North and South America from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. Historiography surveys contact, colonization, and revolutionary periods, and Native, Euramerican, and black experiences. Kenneth P. Minkema

REL 741a, James Baldwin as Religious Writer and Social Critic James Baldwin’s exile from his country and his Pentecostal heritage granted him a perspective that shaped and animated his social criticism and his literary art. Students consider the nature of this twin exile, Baldwin’s exploration of African American life, and how these shaped his understanding of religion, sex, country, and world. Clarence E. Hardy

REL 745a, Race, Religion, and Theology in America How do race and religion relate in American history? What difference does race make for understanding the development of religious traditions, institutions, and practices? This course identifies race as a central problematic in American religious life. It explores the changing formations of racial and religious identities in the United States with attention to intersectional themes of ethnicity, national identity, and gender. Readings engage students in methods of critical race theory, historical analysis, and contemporary theological thought with attention to Native American, African American, Mormon, Jewish, Mexican American, and Asian American experiences. Students gain new historical perspectives that should inform and strengthen both theological thinking and work for racial justice, whether in the ministry, the academy, or elsewhere. Chloë F. Starr, Tisa J. Wenger

REL 750b, Object Lessons: Material and Aesthetic Formation in the American Sunday School Through a focus on the material culture of Christian education, this course explores the history of the American Sunday school. Tracing the development of the pious pedagogical method known as the “object lesson,” the course examines the relationship between seemingly spiritual performances such as prayer, memorization, and the sensation of sacred presence, and material things such as picture cards, finger games, and optical devices. The overarching theme of the course is aesthetic formation, or the particular ways in which pedagogical techniques attune the senses to certain experiences of divine presence and sacred immediacy. The course is designed to introduce students to basic concepts and methods in the study of material culture, the human sensorium, and religious education. Anderson Blanton

REL 751b, Liturgical Books of the Middle Ages This course is an introduction to the major books and texts used in Western Christian worship from ca. 800 to ca. 1500. The class explores the history of Western liturgy through original primary sources in the Beinecke Library, examining different book types and their histories (e.g., bibles, psalters, antiphoners, missals), equipping students to describe and interpret manuscript testimony, and enabling them to access and research ancient forms of liturgy. Points of discussion include the dynamic relationship between worship and writing, the role of illumination and design, and the transition from manuscripts to printed books in the Renaissance. Henry Parkes

REL 763b, Primary Readings in American Christianity, 1870–1940 The United States changed dramatically in the period between the Civil War and the Second World War. Reconstruction, unprecedented levels of immigration, westward expansion, a newly global U.S. empire, progressive social reforms, the growth of scientific and popular racism, the First World War, the Roaring Twenties, and the Great Depression all left indelible marks on American cultural and religious life. What role did Christianity play in these historical developments, and how were Christian traditions transformed in the process? This seminar addresses these questions with a focus on selected primary sources, written by men and women representing a wide range of Christian traditions, regions, and racial/ethnic backgrounds. Tisa J. Wenger

REL 764a, Martin Luther and the Reformation This course investigates the life and thought of Martin Luther in the context of the late medieval/early modern culture in which he lived. The class examines the development of his key ideas, his networks of friends and colleagues, his relationship to the world of print, and his role as a reformer of the church. Attention is given to the development of Luther’s thought, as well as to areas of conflict, such as the Peasants’ War, the Lord’s Supper, church and temporal authority, and the reformer’s views on his numerous opponents. Through Luther’s writings students encounter his complex and volatile character, which found expression in sermons and pastoral care as well as in vicious polemic against adversaries. The course asks why the Reformation took the shape it did. The overall question is how, as the Reformation’s five-hundredth anniversary is marked, we can interpret this momentous event that profoundly shaped the modern world. The course includes visits to the Beinecke Library and the Yale Art Gallery. Carlos Eire, Bruce Gordon

HIST 387a, West African Islam: Jihad and Its Pacifist Opponents The course explores the pacifist impetus in Muslim West Africa and in Islamic thought. It examines the origins of jihad in Islamic expansion and compares that to the opposing pacifist Muslim clerical tradition and its Sufi connections. Colonial penetration posed a challenge for the pacifist tradition as it did for jihad, resulting in making jihad obsolete and turning religion into a function of civil society. Lamin Sanneh

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Area IV: Ministerial Studies

The biblical and theological heritage of Christianity finds focus in engagement with persons and structures of the church and culture. The revelations of the Bible and theology, by their very nature, require ever-renewed lodging and expression in the ongoing life of both the church and the world. The church and the world, by their natures, require ever-renewed rooting and direction in the Christian heritage. It is a lifetime vocation to learn to discern and guide the processes of this reciprocal engagement. Area IV aspires to find guidelines and impetus for this vocation. All courses in Area IV presuppose some personal experience with the occasions of ministry. Although some Area IV courses have no prerequisites and are appropriate for entering students, students normally will wait until their second year to begin their preaching courses.

Pastoral Theology and Care

REL 807a, Introduction to Pastoral Theology, Care, and Counseling This course invites students into the practice of particular pastoral care skills such as listening and responding in pastoral conversations; supporting families through life-transitions; “reading” and engaging cultural contexts and systems in which care takes place; and intentional uses of the self in spiritual care. The course introduces at a basic level key theoretical frameworks including narrative, intercultural/interreligious care, family systems, and grief and trauma theory. The course attends throughout to contexts and systems of injustice and oppression as a dimension of pastoral care. Joyce Mercer

REL 807b, Introduction to Pastoral Theology and Care This course familiarizes students with the pastoral-theological literature that advances narrative and communal, contextual models of care. These models stress listening to persons’ stories in all of their cultural complexity and bringing these stories into conversation with theology, tradition, and local communities of faith. Pastoral skills in listening, responding, and group process are practiced in the classroom and in small groups led by local pastoral practitioners. Family systems theory, premarital counseling, and crisis care are covered. Throughout, attention is given to issues of justice and social location as critical dimensions of caregiving. Teaching methods include lecture, discussion, film, case studies, independent research projects, small-group work, and role-plays. Mary Clark Moschella

REL 810b, My Neighbor’s Faith: Building Interreligious Community As communities across the country and around the world engage religious diversity in a way they never have before, this seminar seeks to explore theoretical and practical issues in interreligious community building. The course surveys Western theological and social scientific models for how interreligious relationships and communities are formed, as well as Christian theological models for interreligious contact. The class defines the qualities of effective interfaith relationships and identifies common mistakes leaders can make. Guest religious leaders from different religious traditions make presentations, students conduct interviews across traditions, and a final project critiques major current models of interreligious work. Ian Buckner Oliver

REL 818b, Joy as Spiritual Path in Caregiving Vocations Pastoral care for persons, communities, and the world need not be a dreary, depressing, or defeated endeavor. This course explores joy in action in the narratives of five notable figures—Heidi Neumark, Henri Nouwen, Gregory Boyle, Pauli Murray, and Paul Farmer—gleaning their pastoral theological wisdom and exploring the ways of compassion, connection, freedom, and justice along their spiritual paths. The class learns how to cultivate perspectives that are deep enough to hold human suffering and spacious enough to perceive divine goodness, beauty, and love. The practice of narrative care is taught as a means of supporting human flourishing at personal, communal, and societal levels. Mary Clark Moschella

REL 826a, Ministry and Addictions This course provides an introduction to the dynamics of addictions and pastoral care in the lives of persons, families, and communities. The class surveys ecclesial, clinical, cultural, public policy, and historical perspectives on alcoholism and other chemical abuse/addiction, as well as behavioral or “process addictions” such as gambling and Internet addiction, with a focus on contemporary understandings of the spiritual and theological implications of these perspectives. Attention to intersectionality and the impact of poverty, race, class, gender, and sexuality on substance use and its consequences is a theme throughout. Students also consider various frameworks for promoting recovery. The course includes some experiences outside of the classroom (e.g., visits to AA/Al-Anon/ACoA meetings) and utilizes discussion, lecture, film, and action-reflection pedagogies. Joyce Mercer

Preaching Ministry

REL 812a or b, Principles and Practices of Preaching This is the introductory course in the theology, history, and practice of preaching. It is a prerequisite for upper-level homiletics courses. Special attention is given to biblical exposition, the congregational context, the appropriate use of experience, the development of a homiletical imagination, and engaging all the preacher’s gifts for communication. The course includes plenary presentations and small group preaching sections for which students prepare and deliver sermons. Leonora Tubbs Tisdale, Donyelle McCray

REL 868b, Prophetic Preaching At the heart of the witness of Hebrew and Christian Scriptures is a prophetic “Word of God” that preachers are called to interpret and proclaim with honesty, integrity, and compassion. In this course students have an opportunity to explore the nature of prophetic preaching in the midst of church, nation, and world, and to reflect upon the tensions and challenges presented when the prophet is also a pastor. Students also explore strategies for faithful prophetic witness in the pulpit and enhance their own skills as preachers of God’s two-edged Word. Through readings, class discussion, and the preaching and critique of sermons, students wrestle with how best to “speak truth in love” from the pulpit in ways that are faithful, relevant, and transformative for local faith communities. Leonora Tubbs Tisdale

REL 870a, Women’s Ways of Preaching In this course students have an opportunity to explore a variety of issues related to women and preaching as they are also encouraged to discover, explore, and enhance their own unique voices in the pulpit. Topics to be addressed include the history of women as preachers, women and the creative process, authority in the pulpit, biblical and theological interpretation for preaching, sermon topics of special concern for women, and speech communication in the pulpit. Students are exposed to the sermons of diverse women preachers and also have the opportunity to preach two sermons in class. Leonora Tubbs Tisdale

Educational Ministry

REL 811a, Models and Methods of College and University Chaplaincy This course explores various approaches to college and university chaplaincy found in the United States in the twenty-first century. It provides an overview of strategies needed to offer a creative, current, and engaging chaplaincy in higher education—drawing on a historical framework for the role of chaplaincy in the college setting from the middle of the twentieth century, when secularism became a heavier influence, to the present century, exploring contemporary issues that confront the vocation in a pluralistic context. Through a series of lectures, open discussions, site visits, short chaplaincy narratives, and guest speakers, the class encounters numerous perspectives and approaches to ministry in higher education. Sharon M.K. Kugler

REL 815a, Radical Pedagogy This course studies and employs radical pedagogy as a lens through which to explore the intersections of religious education and community transformation. In essence, the class explores the ways that education, particularly religious education, is powerful, political, transformative, and even radical. This course also pushes students to address questions about the goals of education. Many proponents of radical pedagogy also embrace ideals of radical equality or democracy. To explore these issues, the class wrestles with contemporary questions about educational reform in public schools and considers what role religious education can play in addressing social justice concerns within communities. The foundational theorists and conversation partners in the course include public and religious educators, critical theorists, and community organizers. While this course directly draws upon experiences as persons of faith and experiences within religious communities, the cases and readings draw heavily on what might be called “secular” theorists and educators who focus on public educational arenas. Almeda M. Wright

REL 822a, Ministry with Youth This course explores theories, perspectives, and approaches to educational ministry with youth. Students look closely at the context and world of youth and explore texts and media that take seriously the voices, dreams, questions, and struggles of adolescents. The class also looks closely at the role of religion and faith in the lives of adolescents—in particular, the role of Christian education and youth workers in the lives of young people. While acknowledging that there are myriad approaches to ministry and education with youth, in this course students wrestle with the question of what “must” be included, covered, or emphasized in good youth ministry. Almeda M. Wright

REL 848a, Leadership Ministry in Schools This course seeks to prepare students of all denominations for leadership positions in schools. It begins with an analysis of “where young people are” today and, in particular, the existential/spiritual questions they are often asking, even without realizing they are asking them. Teaching about religion in secular schools—public and independent—is briefly considered. Then the course turns its attention to schools with some sort of religious orientation. After studying the heritage and tradition of such schools, students consider the issues involved in leading schools today. The roles of school head, chaplain (lay or ordained), the religion teacher, and the student are considered. Many aspects of school life are explored, including the pedagogical, pastoral, and liturgical. The difficulties and delights of educational ministry and leadership are identified and discussed. Naturally, issues of race, class, gender, and sexuality arise. Through required field trips, the course considers the particular problems and opportunities involved in inner-city schools and parish day schools. Jere A. Wells

REL 852b, Women’s Ways of Knowing Does gender make a difference? What difference does attending to the lived experiences and perspectives of women make as we theorize about knowledge, education, religions, theology, and Christian practices? This course attempts to explore these questions through works that take seriously the voices and practices of women as they relate to knowledge construction, education, and faith development within religious communities, particularly Christian communities. The course has three interconnected foci: feminist, womanist, and postcolonial epistemologies; exemplars of women’s involvement in education as practices of freedom; and women’s development in religious communities. The first two areas attempt to broaden the conversation about what counts as knowledge (and who gets to decide) and to explore ways that women have participated in liberation struggles in academic and public arenas. In the last area, students explore and lament some of the ways that women’s development has not been taken seriously in religious communities. In particular, this course explores examples of Christian theology and biblical interpretation that have at times thwarted the development of women and begins to open up approaches that empower women’s development. Almeda M. Wright

REL 875b, Advanced Topics in Leadership Ministry in Schools and Colleges YDS is the first divinity school to offer courses in school and college ministries at the master’s level. The academic field is, in many ways, an “emerging” one. This seminar is designed to allow students to pursue—in depth—themes raised in the introductory courses. The “literature” consulted in the course is sometimes “propaganda” (published view books and Web site gleanings about an educational ministry and its mission). Seminar students with a particular interest may have to rely more on their own direct experience and research than on works by scholars and researchers in the field. The class normally considers seven principal topics: where young people are today; historical background; the variety of religious schools and colleges with a variety of purposes; leadership in educational ministry; the importance of the mission statement; curriculum (or the equivalent) and worship in educational ministry; and educational ministry in the inner city and other special circumstances. In the event that there is particular interest in a topic not listed, the instructor may add it to the list. The seminar also makes extensive use of case studies and simulations. Issues of race, class, gender, and sexuality arise in connection with topics considered in this seminar. Jere A. Wells

Spirituality and Ministry

REL 835a, Meditation: East and West This seminar, just as easily named Christian contemplative practice, explores in a practical and theoretical manner the Christian tradition’s rich heritage of prayer complemented by selected meditation practices from Eastern religions. A unit on Buddhism within its own religious system concludes the term. Janet K. Ruffing

REL 837a, Discernment of Spirits through Selected Mystics This course explores the Western Christian tradition of discernment of spirits through reading key historical texts. It includes an overview of the Scriptural texts on discernment and primarily focuses on texts from the fourteenth century through the sixteenth century. The figures studied are the anonymous writer of The Cloud of Unknowing, Catherine of Siena, Ignatius of Loyola, Teresa of Avila, and Jonathan Edwards. Janet K. Ruffing

REL 838b, John of the Cross: A Guide for Difficult Times This course explores John of the Cross’s mystical teaching on the dark nights and the development of contemplative prayer, including mystical transformation or divinization through the process of prayer and life experiences. This entails a close reading of the Spiritual Canticle, the Living Flame of Love, the Ascent of Mount Carmel, and the Dark Night. Students not only interpret these texts within the sixteenth-century framework of John of the Cross but also consider key contemporary applications of this teaching in relationship to what some are interpreting as social experiences of dark night and impasse, and the way personal and social pain in our lives contributes to our interior transformation through participation in God. Janet K. Ruffing

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Area V: Comparative and Cultural Studies

Courses in this area are grouped as follows: Comparative Studies: The exploration of non-Christian traditions with special emphasis upon comparative religious questions. Philosophy of Religion: The study of conceptual issues that bear upon method in theology and ethics, the philosophical clarification of religious concepts and categories, and the examination of philosophical worldviews that are alternatives to traditional Christian perspectives. Religion and the Arts: Studies concerning the nature of human imagination in visual, literary, and musical forms that have shaped the religious life and its cultural expression, both within and outside the Christian church. The inquiry is normally undertaken within the context of ministry. Study of Society: The employment of normative and social-scientific tools to comprehend and bring under ethical and theological scrutiny societal institutions (including religious ones) and ideational patterns.

Comparative Studies

REL 914a, Christian-Muslim Encounter: Historical and Theological Dimensions This course is an introduction to Islamic theology through the framework of the Five Pillars, with special emphasis on the development of religious structures and institutions in the early centuries. In time the pillars of religion grew independently of Islam’s political culture. Civil society offered a stable environment for religious life amidst political changes. This situation has similarities with New World ideas about society rather than the state as the proper locus of religion. Lamin Sanneh

REL 916b, World Christianity: Religious and Cultural Factors From its earliest origins the Christian movement has taken hold in diverse cultures and societies in equally diverse and complex ways, and this fact has been reiterated in the contemporary phase with particular sharpness. Across and beyond denominational boundaries, the Christian movement took a sharp and vigorous turn from the middle of the twentieth century, replacing the old paradigm of mission as a Western effort with mission as a post-Western development. The global response to the election of Pope Francis in 2013 has highlighted his Third-World roots in Latin America, demonstrating the new energy driving Christianity’s post-Western transformation and the implications for a post-Christian West. The course explores the religious and cultural dimensions of the subject. Lamin Sanneh

REL 919b, African Religions: Theological Inquiry Sacrifice is a core feature of religious life and practice, and this course presents the subject through a variety of religious traditions. Using Evans-Pritchard’s classic study of Nuer religion, the course builds on the theme with comparative materials from other religions before considering Christian ideas of sacrifice in the concluding stages. A critical question in the inquiry is the relation between sacrifice and community, on the one hand, and, on the other, society and the individual. Lamin Sanneh

REL 957a, South and Southeast Asian Christianities This course studies a range of texts (and some images) relating to Christianity across South and Southeast Asia: from Burma to Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan. The course is thematic and deliberately presents a range of methodologies and approaches, from anthropological to sociological and theological. Through individual case studies students zoom in on particular aspects of lived Christian life in different countries and people groups in Asia—including interreligious tension, tribal conversion, feminist or Dalit voices—and use these to ask wider questions of global Christian experience and theology. Chloë F. Starr

Philosophy of Religion

REL 910a, Philosophy of Religion This course is a general introduction to the philosophy of religion, including such topics as religion and ethics, religious experience, the problem of evil, faith and reason, arguments for the existence of God, death and immortality, miracles, science and religion, and religious pluralism. John E. Hare

REL 922b, Theological Predications and Divine Attributes An exploration of philosophical debates concerning the nature of theological language and the nature of God. Topics include theories of analogical predication, divine simplicity, God’s relation to time, divine impassibility, the nature of God’s love, divine freedom, the compatibility of foreknowledge and human freedom, and theories of providence. John Pittard

REL 930b, Aquinas and Scotus The purpose of this class is to read some texts of Thomas Aquinas and John Duns Scotus in order to compare their different answers to some key questions in theology. The course focuses on moral theology but also starts with some texts in metaphysics in order to give context. John E. Hare, Denys Turner

REL 938b, Divine Command Theory This course examines the meta-ethical theory that what makes something morally obligatory is that God commands it. The course looks at classical and contemporary defenses of and attacks on this theory. John E. Hare

REL 965b, Faith and the Will An investigation of questions concerning the nature of religious faith, the relationship of faith to the will and to desire, and the merits of various prudential, moral, and existential arguments for and against religious faith. Questions to be treated include: Is faith in some sense “meritorious” (to use Aquinas’s language)? Do the commitments of faith essentially involve believing propositions? Can belief be voluntary? Can trust or hope be voluntary? Should we hold religious beliefs to the same epistemic standards that apply to more mundane beliefs? Or should we persist in faith even if these beliefs do not meet conventional rational standards? The course explores these questions through writings by Aquinas, Pascal, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, James, Freud, Wittgenstein, and various contemporary philosophers. John Pittard

REL 976a/PHIL 700a, Kant’s Philosophy of Religion This course looks at Kant’s writings on the philosophy of religion, from the Critique of Pure Reason to Conflict of the Faculties. John E. Hare

Religion and the Arts

REL 900a, Sacred Music in the Western Christian Tradition: From the Bible to Modernity This course is an introductory survey of music’s changing place in Western Christianity. With attention to particular repertories and works, this course explores how musical creativity across the ages has responded to—and been shaped by—theologies, liturgies, technologies, geographies, institutions and social groups, as well as practices from secular traditions. Students gain an understanding of the various techniques, styles, and approaches to text setting historically employed by different Christian denominations, chiefly in Western Europe and America. Final projects on musical practices or repertories since 1900 complete the survey, encouraging students to reflect on the relationship between recent developments in sacred music and those of the past. Henry Parkes

REL 935a, Religious Lyric in Britain This is a survey of the religious lyric in Britain from the seventeenth century (Donne and Herbert) to the present (Michael Symmons Roberts and Malcolm Guite). Poets to be read include those who address God from a standpoint of faith (e.g., Hopkins and R.S. Thomas) and those who do not (e.g., Hardy, Larkin, and Stevie Smith). Working within a British framework, the class traces a literary tradition that has a certain cultural and religious (i.e., Christian) coherence. By choosing lyric poetry, students look at short, non-narrative, often emotive work that stresses the speaker’s personal thoughts or feelings. Whereas secular lyric often concentrates on human love, with all its ebb and flow, the religious lyric is concerned with the divine-human relationship—its presence and/or its absence. The class’s study mixes close textual analysis with attention to larger theological issues. Peter S. Hawkins

REL 941b, Chinese and Japanese Christian Literature What effect did Christianity have on modern Chinese literature, if any, and what sort of Christianity emerges from Chinese Christian literature? Is Endo Shusaku the only Japanese Christian writer (and does Martin Scorsese’s film do justice to his novel Silence)? This course traces the development of a Christian literature in China and Japan from late Imperial times to the end of the twentieth century, with particular focus on the heyday (in China) of the 1920s and ’30s, and on the Japanese side, on Endo’s postwar novels. Using texts available in English, the class examines how Christian ideas and metaphors permeated the literary—and revolutionary—imagination in East Asia. The influence of Christianity on literature came directly through the Bible and church education, and indirectly through translated European and Western literature, but it is rarely clearly in evidence. The course tests the aesthetic visions and construction of the human being in the early Republic, among Japanese samurai in Mexico, and in the martyrs of Nagasaki. Chloë F. Starr

REL 943a, Performance behind Bars: Sacred Music, Sacred Texts, and Social Justice The course engages students in collaborating with incarcerated men on adapting sacred texts and songs for theatrical performance. Students explore the potential of theater as a catalyst for personal and social transformation. The class reads Dante’s Divine Comedy and studies theatrical texts based on sacred sources as students become familiar with the criminal justice system in America. Ronald Jenkins

REL 945a, From House Churches to Medieval Cathedrals: Christian Art and Architecture from the Third Century to the End of Gothic This course examines the art associated with, or related to, Christianity from its origins to the end of Gothic. It analyzes major artistic monuments and movements in a variety of regions, paying particular attention to how art shapes and is shaped by the social and historical circumstances of the period and culture. The class considers art in diverse media, focusing on painting, sculpture, architecture, and decorative arts. Trips to the Yale Art Gallery are included. The course aims at familiarizing students with key monuments of Christian architecture, sculpture, painting, and minor related arts, analyzing each within its particular sociocultural perspective. The course stresses the importance of looking at works of art closely and in context and encourages students to develop their skills of close observation and critical visual analysis. Additionally, students are encouraged to examine the ways parallel developments in Christian theology, dogma, and liturgy are influenced by art. Regular readings are complemented by in-depth class lectures and discussions. Felicity Harley-McGowan

REL 946b, Passion of Christ in Scripture, Literature, and Visual Arts This seminar surveys the Passion of Christ as first recorded in Christian Scripture and then represented in literature, visual art, drama, film, and performance. It is organized chronologically but develops certain recurring themes, e.g., the mystery of Christ’s person, the blame for his death, the place of suffering in the Christian story. Students explore some of the different ways the Passion has been imagined, exploited, and appropriated. Enrollment is limited to twelve students to insure adequate time for weekly discussion and for a presentation of research at the end of term. The composition of the class will be determined after the first meeting, when students write a statement of interest noting how the course fits into their educational program. The course does not aim to be comprehensive but rather to focus on specific moments in Christian history and the literary or visual art that expresses a theological vision. Peter S. Hawkins, Vasileios Marinis

REL 950a and b, Dante’s Journey to God This yearlong, two-term course on the Divine Comedy is a reading of the entire text in the light of what it purports to be—a journey toward the vision of God. Such an approach does not mean dissolving the narrative into allegory or ignoring literary considerations in favor of theology; it means taking full account of the poem as a path with a divine destination. Special interest is paid to how Dante transforms his pagan sources, how deeply he assimilates the Bible and its interpretative traditions, and how boldly he attempts to establish his own text as a poema sacro (sacred poem). Peter S. Hawkins

REL 953a, Reading Poetry Theologically This course explores poetry as a form of theological discourse. Through close readings of individual poems and poetic sequences, students consider how the form as well as the subject matter of the poetry opens up new horizons for interpreting and articulating theological themes. Beginning with selections from Gerard Manley Hopkins and concluding with studies of contemporary poets, this class examines how modern and late-modern Anglo-American poets have created fresh embodiments of a Christian perspective and contributed to the public tasks of theology. David Mahan

REL 955b, The Cult of Saints in Early Christianity and the Middle Ages For all its reputed (and professed) disdain of the corporeal and earthly, Christianity lavished considerable attention and wealth on the material dimension of sainthood and the “holy” during its formative periods in late antiquity and the Middle Ages. Already in the second century Christian communities accorded special status to a select few “friends of God,” primarily martyrs put to death during Roman persecutions. Subsequently the public and private veneration of saints and their earthly remains proliferated, intensified, and became an intrinsic aspect of Christian spirituality and life in both East and West until the Reformation. To do so, it had to gradually develop a theology to accommodate everything from fingers of saints to controversial and miracle-working images. This course investigates the theology, origins, and development of the cult of saints in early Christianity and the Middle Ages with special attention to its material manifestations. The class combines the examination of thematic issues, such as pilgrimage and the use and function of reliquaries (both portable and architectural), with a focus on such specific cases as the evolution of the cult of the Virgin Mary. Felicity Harley-McGowan, Vasileios Marinis

REL 963b, Literature of Trauma How can literary art respond to extreme suffering, particularly when it involves the trauma of large-scale violence and oppression, which seems to defy aesthetic response? How can literary artists fulfill a summons to bear witness and remember without vitiating the apparent senselessness of human atrocity? How do theological responses to trauma interact with those made by creative writers? This course examines these and other questions through the works of poets and novelists responding to the traumas of war (WWI poetry), genocide (Holocaust poetry and fiction), historic violence and oppression (African American, East European, and Latin American poetry and fiction), and the end of the world (apocalyptic fiction). This is not a course in clinical psychology or pastoral theology. The class focuses on the literary-critical and theological issues that arise through close reading of these texts. David Mahan

REL 966a/AMST 805a/HSAR 720a/RLST 699a/WGSS 799a, Sensational Materialities: Sensory Cultures in History, Theory, and Method This interdisciplinary seminar explores the sensory and material histories of (often religious) images, objects, buildings, and performances as well as the potential for the senses to spark contention in material practice. With a focus on American things and religions, the course also considers broader geographical and categorical parameters so as to invite intellectual engagement with the most challenging and decisive developments in relevant fields, including recent literatures on material agencies. The goal is to investigate possibilities for scholarly examination of a robust human sensorium of sound, taste, touch, scent, and sight—and even “sixth senses”—the points where the senses meet material things (and vice versa) in life and practice. Topics include the cultural construction of the senses and sensory hierarchies; investigation of the sensory capacities of things; and specific episodes of sensory contention in and among various religious traditions. In addition, the course invites thinking beyond the “Western” five senses to other locations and historical possibilities for identifying the dynamics of sensing human bodies in religious practices, experience, and ideas. Sally M. Promey

REL 967b/AMST 692b/HSAR 730b/JDST 799b/RLST 788b, Religion and the Performance of Space This interdisciplinary seminar explores categories, interpretations, and strategic articulations of space in a range of religious traditions. In conversation with the work of major theorists of space, this seminar examines spatial practices of religion in the United States during the modern era, including the conception, construction, and enactment of religious spaces. It is structured around theoretical issues, including historical deployments of secularity as a framing mechanism, ideas about space and place, geography and gender, and relations between property and spirituality. Examples of case studies treated in class include the enactment of rituals within museums, the marking of religious boundaries such as the Jewish “eruv,” and the assignment of “spiritual” ownership in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park. Margaret Olin, Sally M. Promey

REL 989b, Accidental Theologies Much of the best and most durable theology is done accidentally, or incidentally. It occurs in letters, essays, notebooks, poems, and stories. It is often, if not unintentional, at least not foremost in the writer’s consciousness. It is often inextricable from biographical details and formal dynamics. It is often the very thing that gets overlooked in critical appraisals of the work. This course is designed to discuss the theology of these apparently nontheological works. It is also designed to test our faith against the various pressures exerted by these works. Christian Wiman

REL 992b, If I Cannot Fly, Let Me Sing: Poetry in Music This course is part seminar and part workshop and is designed for a mix of singers, writers, and composers. The seminar studies the relationship of poetry and music, especially in sacred contexts. (What exactly constitutes a “sacred context” at this moment of our cultural history is one question the course raises.) The chief emphasis is on using texts in musical compositions, but this also necessarily involves literary and musical interpretation as well as performance of poetry. The workshop is designed to develop and critique original compositions by the students, leading to a final performance at the end of the term. This course is designed to accommodate students who have knowledge of one discipline but not another. Christian Wiman, James Taylor

Study of Society

REL 902b, Ethics and the Climate Crisis The climate is changing, sea levels are rising, species are disappearing at alarming rates, each year is hotter than the last, and drinkable water is increasingly scarce. How should we respond? The purpose of this course is to provide an introduction to core questions and moral frameworks in environmental ethics as they relate to climate change. The course explores how scholars, activists, and religious leaders have created and refined ethical responses to environmental problems. To develop a deeper understanding of not only the promise of environmental ethics, but also its efficacy and theoretical underpinnings, the course invites students to critically assess the effectiveness of these strategies and to be analytical in the examination of proposed solutions. Matthew Riley

REL 903Ha/F&ES 783Ea, Introduction to Religions and Ecology This hybrid online course introduces the newly emerging field of religion and ecology and traces its development over the past several decades. It explores human relations to the natural world as differentiated in religious and cultural traditions. In particular, it investigates the symbolic and lived expressions of these interconnections in diverse religious texts, ethics, and practices. In addition, the course draws on the scientific field of ecology for an understanding of the dynamic processes of Earth’s ecosystems. The course explores parallel developments in human-Earth relations defined as religious ecologies. Similarly, it identifies narratives that orient humans to the cosmos, namely, religious cosmologies. This is a six-week, two-credit course with a three-credit option. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

REL 917Hb/F&ES 785Eb, East Asian Religions and Ecology This hybrid online course introduces the East Asian religious traditions of Confucianism, Daoism, and East Asian Buddhism in relation to the emerging field of religion and ecology. This overview course identifies developments in the traditions that highlight their ecological implications in the contemporary period. In particular, it relates religious concepts, textual analysis, ritual activities, and institutional formations to engaged, on-the-ground environmental projects. It investigates the symbolic and lived expressions in religious ethics and practices that can be defined as religious ecologies. Similarly, it identifies narratives in Confucianism, Daoism, and East Asian Buddhism that orient humans to the cosmos, namely, religious cosmologies. This interrelationship of narratives and religious environmentalism provides pathways into the study of religion and ecology. This is a six-week, two-credit course with a three-credit option. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

REL 918Ha/F&ES 786Ea, Native American Religions and Ecology This hybrid online course explores a diversity of Native American peoples and examines their ecological interactions with place, biodiversity, and celestial bodies as religious realities. The dynamic interactions of First Nations’ cultures and bioregions provide a lens for understanding lifeways, namely, a weave of thought and practice in traditional Native American life. Through symbolic languages, subsistence practices, and traditional rituals, lifeways give expression to living cosmologies, namely, communal life lived in relation to a sacred universe. This is a six-week, two-credit course with a three-credit option. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

REL 928Hb/F&ES 792Eb, South Asian Religions and Ecology This hybrid online course introduces the South Asian religious traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism and, briefly, Jainism, in relation to the emerging field of religion and ecology. This overview course identifies developments in the traditions that highlight their ecological implications in the contemporary period. In particular, it relates religious concepts, textual analysis, ritual activities, and institutional formations to engaged, on-the-ground environmental projects. It investigates the symbolic and lived expressions in religious ethics and practices that can be defined as religious ecologies. Similarly, it identifies narratives in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism that orient humans to the cosmos, namely, religious cosmologies. This interrelationship of narratives and religious environmentalism provides pathways into the study of religion and ecology. This is a six-week, two-credit course with a three-credit option. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

REL 940b, The Chinese Theologians This course examines select readings from Chinese church and academic theologians (including Hong Kong writers and diaspora voices) to explore the nature of Chinese Christian thought. The readings cover late imperial Roman Catholic writers, early republican Protestant thinkers, high communist-era church theologians, and contemporary Sino-Christian academic theologians. Students read primary materials in English, supplemented by background studies and lecture material to help make sense of the theological constructions that emerge. The course encourages reflection on the challenges for Christian mission in a communist context, on the tensions between church and state in the production of theologies, and on the challenges that Chinese Christianity poses for global Christian thought. Chloë F. Starr

REL 960a, Animal Ethics What are animals, and what are our ethical responsibilities to them? This course introduces students to the major questions in animal ethics and explores a variety of philosophical and religious ways of framing human-animal relationships: Is it ethical to eat animals, experiment upon them, or keep them in zoos or as pets? Do animals have rights? What does the Bible say about animals, and what does the Christian tradition teach us about compassion and mercy toward animals? Do all dogs go to heaven? How does animal ethics challenge and expand traditional models of religious ethics? Students engage with and compare a wide range of questions and insights from animal ethics, animal studies, animal science, art and culture, and environmental philosophy to understand human relationships to animals. The class also examines how religious traditions, most notably Christianity, transmit and inform contemporary views and ethical frameworks that guide our treatment of other living things. Matthew Riley

REL 980a, Travel Seminar: Liberation Theology in the Context of Interfaith India This course is a study/travel seminar, a primary component of which is a ten-day immersion experience in India in March 2017. Students begin to prepare for this experience before the trip by assessing their motives and expectations for this experience, and by reading and discussing assigned materials. Students must commit to journaling about assigned readings every week and to attending a discussion section that meets once every two weeks for two hours. Because the course is three credit hours and meets approximately twice a month, reading assignments average 150 pages per week. Topics for study include (1) an overview of the South Asian situation, including history, politics, economics, and culture, focusing on India; (2) Indian liberation theology; (3) liberation theology on the ground; (4) the present situation of the church and theology in South Asia; and (5) contemporary developments in liberation theology as they relate to issues of economic, environmental, racial, and social injustice. Joseph Cistone

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Courses without Area Designations

Courses listed below do not normally count toward fulfillment of the area distribution requirements described in the chapter Programs of Study.

REL 3604a and b/HEBR 523, Elementary Biblical Hebrew An introduction to the language of the Hebrew Scriptures—Biblical Hebrew. Students work through the grammar book, doing exercises and practicing paradigms. Among these exercises is the reading of specific biblical texts. By the end of the year, students should have a basic grasp of this ancient language’s grammar and some experience reading Hebrew. Eric D. Reymond

REL 3605a and b, Elementary New Testament Greek A two-term introduction to the language of the New Testament intended for those with little or no knowledge of Koine Greek. Concentration in the first term is on elementary grammar and syntax and on a basic working vocabulary. The second term is devoted primarily to rapid reading of the Johannine literature and to developing a working knowledge of the critical apparatus and indexes of the Greek New Testament for use in exegesis and interpretation. Olivia Stewart Lester

REL 3792a, REL 3793a, and REL 3794b, Colloquium on Ministry Formation/Anglican This yearlong colloquium series focuses on the theme of leadership formation. In the fall term, first-year students examine the complex array of skills and intelligences required to develop “the pastoral imagination,” and third-year students engage in a workshop on liturgical celebration (second-year students do not take a colloquium in the fall). In the spring term, all three classes meet together for a revolving series on the theory and practice of leadership, organizational behavior, and leading change. These one-half-credit colloquia are required of all Berkeley Divinity School students wishing to qualify for the Diploma in Anglican Studies. Andrew B. McGowan, Cathy H. George

REL 3795a and b, Colloquium on Ministry Formation/Lutheran The one-half-credit Lutheran Colloquium is offered each fall and spring term. The fall colloquium focuses on Lutheran worship and the spring colloquium on Lutheran spiritual practices and self-care. The colloquium’s primary focus is on students considering ordination in the ELCA, but it is open to all. Timothy J. Keyl [F], Paul David Krampitz [F], Anne Deneen [Sp]

REL 3899, M.A.R. Thesis or Project A project or thesis is an option for both the concentrated and comprehensive M.A.R. programs. Students may elect to write a thesis in the second year of their program. Candidates who choose to write theses or pursue projects enroll for one or two terms, three credit hours per term. A full description of the course is included in the chapter Programs of Study.

REL 3900a or b, Transformational Leadership for Church and Society This series of six one-credit-hour courses helps students discover new ways to offer responsible, creative, and inspirational leadership in church and society by bringing in guests who have proven themselves as leaders in a range of arenas. Each course weekend begins with four hours of instruction on Friday afternoon, including two and a half hours of instruction and a ninety-minute public event with each invited guest. The class gathers for eight hours of course work on Saturday. A maximum of three credits can be applied to the M.A.R., M.Div., or S.T.M. degree through enrollment in this course. William Goettler

REL 3910a and b, ISM Colloquium The Institute of Sacred Music Colloquium is central to the purpose of the Institute and to the faculty’s involvement in, and personal attention to, how ISM students are trained. Colloquium is the meeting ground for all Institute students and faculty, the place where we study together, grapple with major issues, and share our work as students of sacred music, worship, and the arts. Taken for .5 credits per term, Colloquium meets every Wednesday from 3:30 until 5 p.m., with informal discussion from 5 to 5:30 p.m. ISM students from the two partner schools of Music and Divinity collaborate on a presentation to be given in their final year. The course is divided into two term-long parts, with responsibility for the fall term resting primarily with the faculty and outside presenters, and for the spring term primarily with the students. Martin D. Jean

REL 3986a and 3987b, Part-time Internship with Practicum This internship is taken for two consecutive terms starting in September. Internship sites include churches, social service and social change agencies, schools, college campuses, and other institutions. The internship, under the mentorship of a trained supervisor, is combined with a peer reflection group (Practicum) taught by a practitioner, for a total of four hundred hours over the two terms. The internship is guided by a learning covenant that is developed by the student in collaboration with the supervisor. In some cases where a site does not have a theologically trained supervisor, the student may also receive supervision from a theological mentor assigned by the director of the OSM. The Part-Time Internship with Practicum carries three credits each term. Both terms must be completed to meet the degree requirement. Placements are selected during the preceding spring term. Lucinda A. Huffaker

REL 3988a and b, Part-time Internship with Advanced Practicum This program is open to students returning for a second supervised ministry internship. This internship can be arranged as a second year at the same site or at a different site to provide another type of contextual experience. Like the first supervised ministry, the second internship, under the mentorship of a trained supervisor, is combined with a peer reflection group (Practicum) facilitated by a practitioner, for a total of four hundred hours over the two terms. The internship is guided by a learning covenant that is developed by the student in collaboration with the supervisor. In some cases where a site does not have a theologically trained supervisor, the student may also receive supervision from a theological mentor assigned by the director of the OSM. In addition to performing typical internship responsibilities, each intern creates a unique major project that involves substantive research and is presented to other students in the advanced practicum. The Part-Time Internship with Advanced Practicum carries three credits each term. Completion of both terms is required before credit is granted. Successful completion of one supervised ministry internship is a prerequisite. Lucinda A. Huffaker

REL 3989, Summer Intensive Internship with Practicum This internship program is similar to the Part-time Internship with Practicum except that it involves full-time ministry totaling four hundred hours during the summer. Internships in churches are rarely suitable for Summer Intensives, unless they have structured summer programs for seminarians. Summer Intensive Internships include two days of class on campus in May and a weekly peer-group Practicum conducted virtually via the Internet. The course carries six credits for the summer. Lucinda A. Huffaker

REL 3990a or b, Negotiating Boundaries in Ministerial Relationships This nine-hour workshop helps students develop critically reflective understandings of “professional ethics” as it applies to maintaining boundaries in the practice of Christian ministry. This subject is explored through the analysis of aspects of spiritual care and ministerial behavior, including sexuality, power, boundaries, and the personhood or character of the minister. The workshop, required of all M.Div. students, is a prerequisite for any supervised ministry. The workshop does not receive academic credit but does appear on the student’s transcript. Kate Ott, Lucinda A. Huffaker

REL 3991a and b, Specialized Internship in Youth Ministry Like the Part-time Internship with Practicum, the Specialized Internship in Youth Ministry is taken for two consecutive terms starting in September and requires a total of four hundred hours over the two terms. Internship sites are churches with youth programs approved by the Youth Ministry Institute of YDS and OSM. The internship is undertaken by students working in pairs and is under the mentorship of a trained youth ministry leader, with additional theological mentoring provided by the senior pastoral staff of the host site. The weekly peer reflection group (Practicum) is composed of students in youth ministry internships and is facilitated by Youth Ministry Institute professionals. The internship is guided by a learning covenant that is developed by the student in collaboration with the supervisor and theological mentor. In addition, this specialized internship includes a pre-internship team orientation, on-site team coaching, monthly meetings with youth ministry professionals, and a midyear retreat. The Specialized Internship in Youth Ministry carries three credits each term. Completion of both terms is required before credit is granted. Placements are selected during the preceding spring term. Lucinda A. Huffaker

REL 3999, S.T.M. Thesis or Project An extended paper, an independent thesis, or a project in the candidate’s area of concentration is required for the S.T.M. degree. Extended papers are written in conjunction with the regular requirements for courses credited toward the S.T.M. degree. Candidates who choose to write theses or pursue projects enroll for one or two terms, three credit hours per term. A full description of the course is included in the chapter Programs of Study.

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Additional Courses Offered

Area I

  • Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions
  • Apocalypticism: Ancient and Modern
  • Approaches to Old Testament Ethics
  • Ascents to Heaven in Antiquity
  • Biblical Theology: Walter Brueggemann and His Critics
  • The Book of Ben Sira
  • Character and Community in the Biblical Short Story: Jonah, Ruth, Esther
  • Composition of the Pentateuch
  • Corinthian Correspondence
  • Crafting Early Christian Identities
  • Daniel and Related Literature
  • English Exegesis: Amos and Hosea
  • English Exegesis: Epistle to the Hebrews
  • English Exegesis: Luke-Acts
  • English Exegesis: Matthew
  • English Exegesis: Philippians
  • English Exegesis: Romans
  • Ezra-Nehemiah
  • Feminist Interpretation: A Narratological Approach to 1 and 2 Samuel
  • Feminist Interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures
  • Gender, Sex, and Power in the Books of Ruth and Esther
  • Gospel of John and Parting of Ways
  • Greek Exegesis: Acts of the Apostles
  • Greek Exegesis: Ephesians and the Pauline Tradition
  • Greek Exegesis: Galatians
  • Greek Exegesis: Gospel of John
  • Greek Exegesis: Matthew
  • Greek Exegesis: Revelation
  • Greek Exegesis: 2nd Peter and Jude
  • Hebrew Bible Seminar: Problems in the Book of Deuteronomy
  • Hebrew Bible Seminar: Problems in the Book of Ezekiel
  • Hebrew Bible Seminar: Problems in the Book of Isaiah
  • Hebrew Bible Seminar: Problems in the History of Israelite Religion
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Book of Judges
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Exodus
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Genesis
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Jeremiah
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Joshua
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Korahite Psalms
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Leviticus
  • Hebrew Exegesis: Psalms
  • Hebrew Exegesis, Genesis: Women
  • Hellenistic Civilization and the Jews
  • Hellenistic Jewish Texts
  • Historical Grammar of Biblical Hebrew
  • Historical Jesus
  • History and Methods of the Discipline of New Testament Studies
  • History and Methods II
  • History of Biblical Interpretation
  • History of First-Century Palestine
  • Irony and Meaning in the Hebrew Bible
  • Jesus’ Death as a Saving Event
  • Jewish Apocalyptic Literature
  • Judaism in the Persian Period
  • Literary Criticism and the New Testament
  • Living with Difficult Texts
  • Martyrs and Martyrdom
  • New Testament Apocrypha
  • Patristic Greek
  • Paul and the Spirit
  • Philo of Alexandria
  • Prophecy in a Time of Crisis
  • Prophecy in Context
  • Reading Joshua: Contemporary Hermeneutical Issues
  • Readings in Hellenistic Judaism
  • The Rise of Monotheism in Ancient Israel
  • Scripture and Social Ethics
  • Torah and Jewish Identity
  • Tradition and Ideology in the Book of Jeremiah
  • What Are Biblical Values?

Area II

  • African American Moral and Social Thought
  • African American Religious Strategies
  • Asian American Theologies
  • Augustine
  • Baptism and Eucharist in Ecumenical Dialogue
  • Black Religion in the Public Square
  • Bonhoeffer and King
  • Charles Taylor on Self and Secularization
  • Christian Ethics and Social Problems
  • Christian Marriage
  • Christian Theology of “Other Religions”
  • Christianity and Social Power
  • Church Growth and Mission through Worship: What Are They Saying?
  • Churches of the East
  • Contemporary Cosmology and Christian Ethics
  • Contemporary German Theology
  • Contemporary Theological Anthropology
  • Credo: Faith Prayed and Sung
  • The Cult of the Martyrs in Early Christianity: Feasts
  • Cuthbert, Bede, and Their Theological, Musical, and Liturgical Legacy
  • Daily Prayer
  • Desire and the Formation of Faith
  • Devotion and Practice in Early Christianity
  • Environmental Theologies
  • Ethics and Human Nature
  • The Ethics of St. Augustine
  • Foundational Texts in African American Theology
  • Gender and Liturgical History
  • God in Modern Thought
  • Imago Dei and Human Dignity
  • In the Face of Death: Worship, Music, Art
  • Introduction to East Asian Theology
  • Introduction to Medieval Latin
  • Karl Barth’s Church Dogmatics
  • Liturgical Theology
  • Love and Justice
  • Lutheran Ethics in a Comparative Context
  • Martin Luther: Life and Work
  • Medieval Christology and Atonement Theory
  • Music and Theology in the Sixteenth Century: Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, and the Council of Trent
  • Music in Medieval Britain
  • Natural Law and Christian Ethics
  • Patristic Christology
  • Patristic Trinitarian Theology
  • Political Theology
  • Practicing Jesus: Christology and the Christian Life
  • Praying What We Believe: Theology and Worship
  • Process Thought
  • Protestant Liturgical Theology
  • Readings in Schleiermacher
  • Reel Presence: Explorations in Liturgy and Film
  • Reformed Worship
  • Ritual Theory for Liturgical Studies
  • Seminar in the Theology of Paul Tillich
  • Social Practices and Ethical Formation
  • Theological Themes in the Reformed Creeds and Confessions
  • Theology and Ecology
  • Theology and the New Testament
  • Theology of Athanasius
  • Theology of Vatican II
  • United Methodist History and Doctrine
  • Virtue and Hypocrisy: Moral Thought
  • Worship, Culture, Technology
  • Worship and War
  • The Worship Mall

Area III

  • Buxtehude
  • Calvin and Calvinism
  • Chinese Protestant Christianity, 1800–2010
  • Christian Spirituality in the Age of Reform
  • Death and the Dead
  • The German Mystical Tradition in Theology, Piety, and Music
  • German Reformation, 1517–1555
  • God and Self: Spiritual Autobiographies in Context
  • Interpreting Medieval Religion
  • Introduction to Post-Reformation Studies: Sources of Early American History
  • Jonathan Edwards and American Puritanism
  • Late Beethoven
  • Living the Reformation
  • Martin Luther, Religion, and the Civil Rights Movement
  • Music, Liturgy, and Historiography in Medieval England
  • Native Americans and Christianity
  • Pietism and the Origins of Evangelicalism
  • Reformation Europe
  • Religion in American Society, 1550–1870
  • Religion in the American West
  • Religions and Societies in Colonized North America
  • Sacred Music in the Western Christian Tradition
  • Sin, Penance, and Forgiveness in Early Modern Europe
  • Witchcraft and Witch-hunting in Early Modern Europe and America

Area IV

  • Advanced Skills for Pastoral Ministry
  • Baptisms, Weddings, and Funerals
  • Body and Soul: Ministry for Sexuality and Justice
  • Christian Education in the African American Experience
  • Congregational Song as a Resource for Preaching and Worship
  • Contemporary Christian Spirituality
  • Contextual Preaching
  • Creativity and the Congregation
  • Death, Dying, and Bereavement
  • Ethnography for Pastoral Leadership
  • Family Systems and Pastoral Care
  • Feminist and Womanist Perspectives on Pastoral Theology and Care
  • Ignatius of Loyola and the Spiritual Exercises
  • Introduction to Religious Education
  • Ministry and the Disinherited
  • Multicultural Perspectives on Preaching
  • Musical Skills and Vocal Development for Parish Ministry
  • Narrative Therapy: Resources for Pastoral Care
  • The New Homiletic: Innovative Methods of Proclamation
  • Pastoral Care, Anxiety, and Depression: Framing Hope
  • Pastoral Wisdom in Fiction, Memoir, and Drama
  • Planning and Presiding at Worship
  • Preaching the Parables of Jesus
  • Professional Seminar: Theology and Practice of Church Music
  • Psychopathology and Pastoral Care
  • Radical Pedagogy
  • The Roundtable Pulpit
  • Spirituality and Religious Education
  • Spirituality of Presence in the Pulpit
  • Teaching the Bible in the Congregation
  • Text, Memory, and Performance
  • Theologies of Preaching
  • Theology and Practice of Spiritual Direction
  • Women Mystics

Area V

  • A Communion of Subjects: Law, Environment, and Religion
  • American Environmental History and Values
  • American Indian Religions and Ecology
  • American Religious Thought and the Democratic Ideal
  • Art, Architecture, and Ritual in Early Christianity and the Middle Ages
  • The Art and Architecture of Conversion and Evangelism
  • China Mission
  • Christian Art and Architecture from the Renaissance to the Present
  • Christian Pilgrimage
  • Christian Social Ethics
  • Christianity and Ecology
  • Communicative Ethics in a Multicultural Democracy
  • Covenant, Federalism, and Public Ethics
  • Creative Faith: A Writing Course
  • Critical Moments in the History of Christian Art
  • Disagreement, Fallibility, and Faith
  • Environmental Ethics in Theory and Practice
  • Ethics and the Economy
  • Faith and Globalization
  • Faith, Democracy, and Social Change
  • Gender, Religion, and Globalization: Practices, Texts, and Contexts
  • Genesis: Scripture, Interpretation, Literature
  • Global Ethics
  • Global Ethics and Sustainable Development
  • Hegel’s Philosophy of Religion
  • Imagining the Apocalypse: Scripture, Fiction, Film
  • Indigenous Religions and Ecology
  • Interpreting Gospel Music
  • Jewish Space
  • Journey of the Universe
  • Kierkegaard’s Philosophy of Religion
  • Late Medieval English Drama
  • Mary in the Middle Ages
  • Milton
  • Performance of Text: Poetry of T.S. Eliot
  • Performative Theology
  • Poetry and Faith
  • Practices of Witnessing and Onlooking in Visual Theory
  • Psalms in Scripture, Literature, and Music
  • Religion, Ecology, and Cosmology
  • Religion, Power, and the Self
  • Ritual, Hermeneutics, and Performance Art
  • Spiritual Autobiography
  • Spiritual Topographies in Modern Poetry and Fiction
  • Theological Aesthetics
  • Theology of Plato and Aristotle
  • Thomas Berry: Life and Thought
  • Visual Controversies
  • Visual Fluencies
  • Witnessing, Remembrance, Commemoration
  • Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Religion
  • Writing about Religion

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