Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Subjects of Instruction

Courses offered by the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies are described below. The letters “a” and “b” following the course numbers indicate fall- and spring-term courses, respectively. The letter “E” following a course number indicates an online course. Bracketed courses will not be offered during the 2017–2018 academic year.

Project courses involve individually assigned advanced field or laboratory work, or literature review, on topics of special interest to the student; credits and hours for these projects are determined for each student in consultation with the instructor.

Courses throughout the University are generally open to students enrolled in the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, subject to limitations on class size and requirements for prerequisites.

Note For updated course listings, please see the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies website, environment.yale.edu/courses.

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List of Courses by Topic

Foundations

  • [F&ES 500a]
  • Landscape Ecology
  • F&ES 505a
  • Economics of the Environment
  • F&ES 510a
  • Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences
  • F&ES 510Ea
  • Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences
  • F&ES 515a
  • Physical Sciences for Environmental Management
  • F&ES 520a
  • Society and Environment: Introduction to Theory and Method
  • [F&ES 525a]
  • The Politics and Practice of Environmental and Resource Policy
  • F&ES 530a
  • Ecosystems and Landscapes
  • F&ES 540a
  • Global Environmental Governance

Professional Skills Courses

  • F&ES 576b
  • PSC: Collaboration, Negotiation, and Meeting Facilitation
  • F&ES 577b
  • PSC: Environmental Communicator
  • F&ES 578a
  • PSC: Financial Concepts for Environmental Managers
  • F&ES 581a
  • Multifunctioning Carbon-Sequestering Agroforestry

Integrative Frameworks

  • F&ES 610a
  • Science to Solutions
  • [F&ES 620a]
  • Integrative Assessment

Capstone

  • F&ES 953a or b
  • Business and the Environment Consulting Clinic
  • F&ES 954a
  • Management Plans for Protected Areas
  • F&ES 955a or b
  • Seminar in Research Analysis and Communication in Forest Ecology
  • F&ES 958b
  • Interdisciplinary Strategies for Real-World Environmental Problem Solving
  • F&ES 961b
  • Entrepreneurial Venture Creation
  • [F&ES 964b]
  • Large-Scale Conservation: Integrating Science, Management, and Policy
  • F&ES 965b
  • Advanced Readings: Social Science of Conservation and Development
  • [F&ES 966a]
  • The Entrepreneurial Approach to Environmental Problem Solving
  • [F&ES 969b]
  • Rapid Assessments in Forest Conservation
  • F&ES 970a or b
  • Environmental Protection Clinic: Policy and Advocacy
  • F&ES 971b
  • Land Use Clinic
  • F&ES 972a or b
  • Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic
  • F&ES 974a
  • Environmental Protection Clinic: Practice at the Intersection of Civil Rights and Environment Law
  • F&ES 975a
  • Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic: Fieldwork: Practice at the Intersection of Civil Rights and Environmental Law
  • [F&ES 976b]
  • Cities in Hot Water: Urban Climate Mitigation and Adaptation
  • F&ES 977a
  • Creating Science Narratives for Solutions

Ecology

Community and Ecosystem Ecology
  • F&ES 634a
  • Ecology of Global Drylands
  • F&ES 681a
  • Ethnobotany
  • F&ES 717b
  • Tropical Field Ecology
  • F&ES 723a
  • Wetlands Ecology, Conservation, and Management
  • [F&ES 731b]
  • Tropical Field Botany
  • [F&ES 733b]
  • Synthesizing Environmental Science for Policy
  • F&ES 734b
  • Biological Oceanography
  • [F&ES 741b]
  • Introduction to Indigenous Silviculture
  • F&ES 752a
  • Ecology and Conservation of Tropical Forests
  • F&ES 768b
  • Pests, Pathogens, and Parasites in Natural and Managed Systems
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Biology
  • [F&ES 736b]
  • Ecology Seminar
  • [F&ES 738a]
  • Aquatic Ecology
  • [F&ES 739b]
  • Species and Ecosystem Conservation: An Integrated, Interdisciplinary Approach
  • [F&ES 740b]
  • Dynamics of Ecological Systems
  • F&ES 744b
  • Conservation Science and Landscape Planning
Environmental Education and Communication
  • F&ES 742b
  • Fundamentals of Working with People
  • F&ES 745a
  • Environmental Writing
  • F&ES 747a
  • Global Communication Skills
  • F&ES 750a
  • Writing the World
  • F&ES 900a
  • Doctoral Student Seminar and Responsible Conduct of Research
  • F&ES 902a or b
  • Environmental Anthropology Research Lab
  • F&ES 910b
  • Survival Skills for Finishing Doctoral Students

Forestry

Forest Biology
  • F&ES 652b
  • Wood: Structure and Function
  • F&ES 654a
  • Anatomy, Physiology, and Development of Trees and Other Vascular Plants
  • [F&ES 655b]
  • Research Methods of the Anatomy and Physiology of Trees
  • F&ES 656b
  • Tree Physiology and Ecophysiology
  • F&ES 671a
  • Temperate Woody Plant Taxonomy and Dendrology
  • F&ES 674b
  • Seminar in Forest Health
  • F&ES 679a
  • Plant Ecophysiology
  • F&ES 679La
  • Lab: Plant Ecophysiology
  • F&ES 691b
  • Trees: Environmental Biology
Forest Management
  • [F&ES 657b]
  • Managing Resources
  • [F&ES 658a]
  • Global Resources, International Resource Exchanges, and the Environment
  • F&ES 659b
  • The Practice of Silviculture: Principles in Applied Forest Ecology
  • F&ES 660a
  • Forest Dynamics
  • F&ES 668b
  • Field Trips in Forest Resource Management and Silviculture
  • F&ES 669b
  • Forest Ecosystem Management and Operations
  • F&ES 670b
  • Southern Forest and Forestry Field Trip
  • F&ES 675b
  • Growth and Yield
  • F&ES 680a
  • Forest and Ecosystem Finance
  • F&ES 683b
  • Seminar in Tropical Forest Restoration in Human-Dominated Landscapes

Physical Sciences

Atmospheric Sciences
  • F&ES 700b
  • Alpine, Arctic, and Boreal Ecosystems Seminar
  • F&ES 701a and b
  • Climate Change Economics Seminar
  • [F&ES 702b]
  • Climate Change Seminar
  • [F&ES 704a]
  • Workshop on Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry with Drones
  • F&ES 722a
  • Boundary Layer Meteorology
Environmental Chemistry
  • [F&ES 706a]
  • Organic Pollutants in the Environment
  • F&ES 707b
  • Aquatic Chemistry
  • F&ES 708a
  • Biogeochemistry and Pollution
  • F&ES 773a
  • Air Pollution Control
Soil Science
  • [F&ES 709a]
  • Soil Science
Water Resources
  • F&ES 644a
  • Watershed Science
  • F&ES 710b
  • Coastal Governance
  • F&ES 712b
  • Water Resource Management
  • F&ES 713a
  • Coastal Ecosystems
  • [F&ES 714b]
  • Environmental Hydrology
  • F&ES 715b
  • Water Science Seminar
  • [F&ES 724b]
  • Watershed Cycles and Processes
  • F&ES 729b
  • Caribbean Coastal Development: Cesium and CZM
  • F&ES 732a
  • Hydrology and Riverine Geomorphology
  • F&ES 777a
  • Water Quality Control

Quantitative and Research Methods

  • F&ES 550a
  • Natural Science Research Methods
  • F&ES 551a
  • Qualitative Social Science Research
  • F&ES 552b
  • Master’s Student Research Conference
  • F&ES 611a
  • Data Science for Social Research: An Introduction
  • F&ES 638a
  • Carbon Footprints—Modeling and Analysis
  • F&ES 720a
  • Introduction to R
  • F&ES 725a
  • Remote Sensing of Land Cover and Land Use Change
  • F&ES 726b
  • Observing Earth from Space
  • F&ES 751b
  • Sampling Methodology and Practice
  • F&ES 753a
  • Regression Modeling of Ecological and Environmental Data
  • F&ES 754a
  • Geospatial Software Design
  • F&ES 755b
  • Modeling Geographic Space
  • F&ES 756a
  • Modeling Geographic Objects
  • [F&ES 757b]
  • Statistical Design of Experiments
  • F&ES 758b
  • Multivariate Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences
  • F&ES 762a
  • Applied Math for Environmental Studies (AMES): Foundations for Measuring and Modeling Environmental and Socioenvironmental Systems
  • [F&ES 780b]
  • Seminar in Forest Inventory
  • [F&ES 781b]
  • Applied Spatial Statistics
  • [F&ES 794b]
  • Confronting Models with Data

Social Sciences

Economics
  • F&ES 795b
  • Nature as Capital: Merging Ecological and Economic Models
  • [F&ES 802b]
  • Valuing the Environment
  • F&ES 804b
  • Economics of Environmental and Natural Resource Management
  • F&ES 805a or b
  • Seminar in Environmental and Natural Resource Economics
  • [F&ES 904a]
  • Doctoral Seminar in Environmental Economics
  • [F&ES 905b]
  • Doctoral Seminar in Environmental and Energy Economics
Energy and the Environment
  • [F&ES 617a]
  • Readings and Research in Energy History
  • F&ES 618a
  • Energy Policy in Practice
  • F&ES 635b
  • Renewable Energy Project Finance
  • F&ES 716b
  • Renewable Energy
  • [F&ES 798Eb]
  • China’s Energy and Environmental Sustainability Challenge
  • [F&ES 800b]
  • Energy Economics and Policy Analysis
  • [F&ES 812b]
  • Energy’s Impact on Freshwater Resources
  • F&ES 814a
  • Energy Systems Analysis
  • F&ES 816b
  • Electric Utilities: An Industry in Transition
Environmental Policy
  • F&ES 615b
  • Environmental Policy in the European Union
  • F&ES 627a
  • American Environmentalism
  • F&ES 633a
  • Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic: Seminar: Practice at the Intersection of Civil Rights and Environmental Law
  • F&ES 799a
  • Sustainable Development Goals and Implementation
  • F&ES 807a
  • Corporate Environmental Management and Strategy
  • [F&ES 808b]
  • Law, Environment, and Religion: A Communion of Subjects
  • F&ES 815b
  • Governing through Markets: The Potential and Pitfalls of Private Governance and CSR in the Global Era
  • F&ES 817a
  • Urban, Suburban, and Regional Planning Practice
  • F&ES 819b
  • Strategies for Land Conservation
  • F&ES 820b
  • Land Use Law and Environmental Planning
  • F&ES 821b
  • Private Investment and the Environment: Legal Foundations and Tools
  • F&ES 823a
  • Regulation of Energy Extraction
  • F&ES 824a
  • Environmental Law and Policy
  • F&ES 825b
  • International Environmental Law
  • F&ES 826a
  • Foundations of Natural Resource Policy and Management
  • F&ES 827a
  • Animal Law
  • F&ES 828b
  • Comparative Environmental Law in Global Legal Systems
  • [F&ES 829b]
  • International Environmental Policy and Governance
  • F&ES 835a
  • Seminar on Land Use Planning
  • F&ES 835Eb
  • Seminar on Land Use Planning
  • [F&ES 837b]
  • Seminar on Leadership in Natural Resources and the Environment
  • [F&ES 840a]
  • Climate Change and Clean Energy
  • [F&ES 843b]
  • Readings in Environmental History
  • [F&ES 849b]
  • Natural Resource Policy Practicum
  • F&ES 850b
  • International Organizations and Conferences
  • F&ES 851b
  • Environmental Diplomacy Practicum
  • [F&ES 855a]
  • Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Areas
  • F&ES 859b
  • Natural Resources Law
  • [F&ES 862b]
  • The Science of Science Communication
  • [F&ES 866b]
  • The Law of Climate Change
  • F&ES 874a
  • Introduction to Responsible Business: Oil and Wine
  • F&ES 875Ea
  • Urban Resilience: Complexity, Collaborative Structures, and Leadership Challenges
Social and Political Ecology
  • F&ES 606a
  • Modeling a Dynamic World
  • F&ES 614b
  • Environmental Governance and Justice Practicum: Case Studies in a Changing Climate
  • F&ES 628a
  • Understanding and Building Resistance in Developing Countries
  • [F&ES 738Eb]
  • Himalayan Diversities: Environment, Livelihood, and Culture
  • F&ES 760b
  • Conservation in Practice: An International Perspective
  • [F&ES 763b]
  • Translating the Science of Wildlife Conservation into Practice
  • F&ES 764a
  • The North American West as an Environmental, Cultural, and Political Case Study
  • F&ES 767b
  • Tools for Conservation Project Design and Management
  • F&ES 772a
  • Social Justice in the Sustainable Food System
  • F&ES 774a
  • Agriculture: Origins, Evolution, Crises
  • F&ES 783b
  • Field Course in Cultural Diversity, Environmental Politics, and Social Change
  • F&ES 783Ea
  • Introduction to Religions and Ecology
  • [F&ES 784Ea]
  • Western Religions and Ecology
  • [F&ES 785Eb]
  • East Asian Religions and Ecology
  • F&ES 786Ea
  • Native American Religions and Ecology
  • F&ES 787E
  • Thomas Berry: Life and Thought
  • F&ES 789E
  • Journey of the Universe
  • [F&ES 792Eb]
  • South Asian Religions and Ecology
  • F&ES 793b
  • Abrupt Climate Change and Societal Collapse
  • F&ES 831b
  • Society and Natural Resources
  • F&ES 836a
  • Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development
  • F&ES 839a
  • Social Science of Conservation and Development
  • F&ES 846b
  • Perspectives on Environmental Injustices
  • [F&ES 854b]
  • Institutions and the Environment
  • [F&ES 857b]
  • Urbanization, Global Change, and Sustainability
  • [F&ES 869b]
  • Disaster, Degradation, Dystopia: Social Science Approaches to Environmental Perturbation and Change
  • F&ES 873a
  • Global Environmental History
  • F&ES 877b
  • Anthropology of the Global Economy for Conservation and Development
  • F&ES 878a
  • Climate and Society
  • [F&ES 882a]
  • The Black Box of Implementation: Households, Communities, Gender
  • F&ES 892a
  • Introduction to Planning and Development
Health and Environment
  • F&ES 727a
  • The Future of Food
  • F&ES 736Ea
  • Environmental Ethics
  • F&ES 765b
  • Technological and Social Innovation in Global Food Systems
  • F&ES 893b
  • Principles of Risk Assessment
  • F&ES 896b
  • Public Health Toxicology
  • F&ES 897b
  • Environmental and Occupational Exposure Science
  • [F&ES 898a]
  • The Environment and Human Health
  • [F&ES 899b]
  • Sustainable Development in Post-Disaster Context: Haiti
Industrial Ecology, Environmental Planning, and Technology
  • F&ES 612b
  • Waste and Materials Management: Fundamentals and Frontiers
  • F&ES 782a
  • Globalization Space: International Infrastructure and Extrastatecraft
  • F&ES 838b
  • Life Cycle Analysis
  • F&ES 865b
  • Industrial Ecology Advanced Methods: Modeling the Socioeconomic Metabolism
  • F&ES 870b
  • Climate Change Mitigation and Industrial Ecology
  • [F&ES 872b]
  • Introduction to Green Chemistry
  • [F&ES 881a]
  • FT: Field Experience in Industrial Operations
  • F&ES 884a
  • Industrial Ecology
  • F&ES 885b
  • Green Engineering and Sustainability
  • F&ES 888b
  • Ecological Urban Design
  • F&ES 894a
  • Green Building: Issues and Perspectives
  • F&ES 895a
  • Green Building Intensive: How Buildings Work

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F&ES Online and Flipped Courses

In addition to offering courses in the traditional classroom setting, the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies in recent years has made a growing commitment to providing quality education through online learning. As part of this initiative, the School introduced a series of courses that “flip” the typical classroom model. These courses allow students to watch lectures online while still providing an opportunity for weekly personal interactions with F&ES faculty. The digital format helps the instructors incorporate multimedia resources that are difficult to use in the classroom and enables more time for discussion, questions, and/or group work during student-instructor interactions. During the 2017–2018 academic year, the School will offer several courses that use the flipped model. We are also actively developing flipped courses and integrating technology into the classrooms. Therefore, classes not listed here may include some flipped features. Courses offered in 2017–2018 include the following:

  • F&ES 510Ea
  • Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences
  • F&ES 515a
  • Physical Sciences for Environmental Management
  • F&ES 530a
  • Ecosystems and Landscapes
  • F&ES 659b
  • The Practice of Silviculture: Principles in Applied Forest Ecology
  • F&ES 683b
  • Seminar in Tropical Forest Restoration in Human-Dominated Landscapes
  • F&ES 720a
  • Introduction to R
  • F&ES 736Ea
  • Environmental Ethics
  • F&ES 762a
  • Applied Math for Environmental Studies (AMES): Foundations for Measuring and Modeling Environmental and Socioenvironmental Systems
  • F&ES 783Ea
  • Introduction to Religions and Ecology
  • F&ES 786Ea
  • Native American Religions and Ecology
  • F&ES 787E
  • Thomas Berry: Life and Thought
  • F&ES 789E
  • Journey of the Universe
  • F&ES 795b
  • Nature as Capital: Merging Ecological and Economic Models
  • F&ES 835Eb
  • Seminar on Land Use Planning
  • F&ES 875Ea
  • Urban Resilience: Complexity, Collaborative Structures, and Leadership Challenges

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Course Descriptions

At F&ES, new courses are often added after this bulletin is printed. Our website at environment.yale.edu will have an updated list, as well as a list of environmental courses available in other departments at Yale. See also Yale University’s online course information website: yale.edu/oci.

Foundations

[F&ES 500a, Landscape Ecology 3 credits. This Foundations course is an introduction to the study of large-scale ecological patterns and processes. Landscape ecology is a relatively young, rapidly changing field. The topics covered reflect the diverse interests of ecologists: species-area relationships, island biogeography, metapopulation theory, individual-based models, cellular automata, models of biodiversity, etc. Throughout the course the emphasis is on when and how to integrate a spatial perspective into consideration of major ecological questions. Readings from the primary literature augment material covered in lectures. Students complete a project resulting in a manuscript on a landscape-related topic. Knowledge of the concepts and principles covered in Landscape Ecology is assumed for all other F&ES courses in ecology and is essential for informing many kinds of decisions regarding ecosystem management. David K. Skelly]

F&ES 505a, Economics of the Environment 3 credits. This Foundations course within the M.E.M. program provides an introduction to the field of environmental and natural resource economics and policy. It covers both general methodological principles and specific applications. Rather than serving as a standard course in environmental and natural resource economics, the course is tailored specifically to M.E.M. students and hence focuses on environmental problem solving in the real world. While the course begins with a review of the principles of microeconomic analysis applied to environmental and natural resource management, it quickly moves into applications of particular concern for environmental management. Robert O. Mendelsohn

F&ES 510a, Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences 3 credits. An introduction to statistics and data analysis with emphasis on practical applications in the environmental sciences. Includes graphical analysis, common probability distributions, hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and linear regression. The second part of the course introduces the topics of multiple regression and ANOVA that are typically not covered in an introductory class such as AP statistics. There are weekly problem sets using MINITAB, SPSS, or R, as well as a final project. This course is a prerequisite for other statistics courses offered through F&ES, and it presents statistical methods used in many Yale courses in both the natural and social sciences. Three hours lecture. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer

F&ES 510Ea, Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences 3 credits. An introduction to probability and statistics with emphasis on applications in forestry and environmental sciences. Includes methods of graphical analysis, introduction of common probability distributions, and hypothesis testing. The final third of the course introduces the topics of regression and analysis of variance that are covered more thoroughly in F&ES 753a. There are weekly problem sets using MINITAB software, as well as a final project. This course is a prerequisite for all other statistics courses offered through F&ES, and it presents statistical methods used in many of the School’s courses in both the natural and social sciences. This course is taught in a flipped classroom approach. Enrollment limited to thirty. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer

F&ES 515a, Physical Sciences for Environmental Management 3 credits. This Foundations course seeks to provide students with the physical science basics that they need in order to understand and manage environmental problems. The course draws on the disciplines of climatology, environmental chemistry, geology, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, and soil science. Focus is on understanding both the underlying concepts and how they apply to real-world environmental challenges. Useful both as a freestanding course and as a gateway to a wide spectrum of intermediate and advanced courses. Shimon C. Anisfeld

F&ES 520a/ANTH 581a, Society and Environment: Introduction to Theory and Method 3 credits. An introductory course on the scope of social scientific contributions to environmental and natural resource issues. Section I, overview. Section II, initial framing of environmental problems: placing problems in their wider political context, new approaches to uncertainty and failure, and the importance of how the analytical boundaries to resource systems are drawn. Section III, questions of method: the dynamics of working within development projects, and the art of rapid appraisal and short-term consultancies. Section IV, local communities, resources, and (under)development: representing the poor, development discourse, and the question of indigenous peoples and knowledge. There are two guest lectures by prominent scholars in the field. No prerequisites. This is a Foundations course in F&ES, a core course in the combined F&ES/Anthropology doctoral degree program, and a prerequisite for F&ES 869/ANTH 572. Three hours lecture/seminar. Michael R. Dove

[F&ES 525a, The Politics and Practice of Environmental and Resource Policy 3 credits. The purpose of this Foundations course is to provide a survey of public policy theory and practice, as related to development and implementation of environmental and natural resource policy. The course examines theories of policy formation; the intricacies of the policy-making process; the history of natural resource and environmental policy; and applied techniques in policy analysis and evaluation. The course has been specifically designed to provide both a theoretical and practical introduction to natural resource and environmental public policy. Upon completion of the course, the student will understand the political environment within which public policy is formulated, including the role of ideas, science, and learning. Students also will be able to demonstrate basic technical competence in environmental public policy development and the implementation process. The course has been developed to accommodate biologists and other natural scientists and assumes no prior knowledge of political science or the policy-making process. Benjamin W. Cashore]

F&ES 530a, Ecosystems and Landscapes 4 credits. This Foundations course is an introduction to concepts in ecosystem and landscape ecology. Topics covered include element cycling, food web interactions, species-area relationships, whole system metabolism, models of biodiversity, etc. The course emphasizes how to integrate knowledge to understand ecological patterns and processes at multiple scales in order to study, manage, and conserve species and ecosystems. Mark A. Bradford, Peter A. Raymond

F&ES 540a, Global Environmental Governance 3 credits. This course provides an overview of global environmental policy and the management of long-term environmental policy challenges. Concepts include international negotiations, compliance, and effectiveness, while the empirical domains encompass the three major global conventions on climate change, biodiversity, and desertification. Using a portfolio approach to examinations, students prepare a range of individual and group assignments. Detlef F. Sprinz

Professional Skills Courses

F&ES 576b, PSC: Collaboration, Negotiation, and Meeting Facilitation 1 credit. Public decision making takes place in an increasingly complicated and challenging policy-making environment. Decision-making processes need to accommodate complex issues and a crowded and diverse field of stakeholders, all of whom seek a voice in the decision-making process. Process management skills are among the unsung and often untaught skills required by people working in environmental management and public policy. These skills include knowing whom to include when working on a tricky topic; planning and running good meetings; developing strong coalitions; assessing disputes well, then building sound public processes based on what you learn; and determining when it might be helpful to have additional neutral support to assist you in resolving a complex public dispute. This course introduces students to some of the key concepts behind when and how to engage the public or key stakeholders in a productive way to address important environmental and public policy topics. The three six-hour sessions each include presentations, small-group exercises or simulations, and large-group discussion of student and trainer experience. Course content is designed around real-world situations from the instructor’s experience as an impartial public issues mediator and facilitator. Meeting dates to be determined. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. Ona Ferguson

F&ES 577b, PSC: Environmental Communicator 1 credit. This course prepares students for the communication tasks they will face as environmental professionals, researchers, or employees. In their careers, most professionals spend more than half their work time communicating with others, both inside and outside their organization. To advance in their careers and contribute to the progress of an environmental cause, students need a refined ability to communicate their ideas with clarity and credibility. This course focuses on building a constellation of skills that students can apply to their work. They learn how to use communication to influence others, advocate their ideas, and collaborate with colleagues on project teams. Course topics include strategy in communication, diplomatic language, public speaking, writing styles, listening to people, and framing environmental issues for the public. The course meets for a weekly two-hour lecture and demonstration, and students attend a one-hour small-group practice session that allows them to reinforce new communicative behaviors in simulated job tasks, such as project meetings, budget requests, and public hearings. Meeting dates to be determined. Enrollment limited to forty-five. William A. Vance

F&ES 578a, PSC: Financial Concepts for Environmental Managers 1 credit. This course exposes students to the financial concepts used by companies to make and evaluate business decisions. The class covers key financial statements of for-profit businesses; building financial projections for a business, project, or investment; financial markets: what they are and how they operate; investors: the tools they use to evaluate potential investments; and common valuation techniques: uses and limitations. Meeting dates to be determined. Enrollment limited to sixty. Maureen Burke

F&ES 581a, Multifunctional Carbon-Sequestering Agroforestry 1 credit. This course examines carbon-sequestering agriculture practices and their potential to provide solutions to a range of social and environmental problems from climate justice to land degradation. It introduces a global toolkit of practices old and new, and profiles promising plant species. A key group of species explored is perennial staple crops, a group of trees and other long-lived plants providing protein, carbohydrates, and fats for human consumption. We explore industrial ecological applications of perennial crops for materials, chemicals, and energy. While many tropical species and systems are already implemented on a large scale, the course also closely views cold-climate developments. Students are introduced to the farm business planning challenges of production in regenerative integrated systems. Diverse strategies for implementation are presented, including policy, grassroots, and consumer-driven options. Local field trips explore temperate agroforestry, perennial crops, and organic no-till systems. Eric Toensmeier

Integrative Frameworks

F&ES 610a, Science to Solutions 3 credits. While there are many different approaches to understanding and managing complex environmental problems, most involve several major steps: (1) describing/understanding the nature of the problem and its causes (both biophysical and human); (2) using technical, policy, social, and other management tools/processes to help address it; while (3) recognizing/making the value judgments embedded in each (what problems/data are “important”? what solutions are “best”?). The purpose of this course is to illustrate how one might integrate scientific understanding with management choices as part of an effort to manage any particular system over time. It focuses on how to use the broad range of scientific analyses, data, and insights and place them into the context of how they inform problem solving. The interface of science with policy, law, community empowerment, business and economics, and most importantly decision making is the theme that runs through the course. The term-long case study that acts as the organizing framework for the course is toxic chemicals. After receiving essential fundamental facts about the current chemicals management framework, student teams prepare and present “briefing papers” on a toxic of their choosing (e.g., Atrazine in agriculture, Bisphenol A in plastics, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, etc.), including functional uses, toxicology, environmental justice, and governmental regulation, and how and why our current system to design, commercialize, and manage chemicals has failed. These briefings provide the basis of the final phase of the course, which includes the construction of formal recommendations on how to innovate a sustainable chemicals future. This course is intended for people of all backgrounds, from basic to advanced levels of scientific understanding. Preference given to first-year M.E.M. students. Julie B. Zimmerman, Paul T. Anastas

[F&ES 620a, Integrative Assessment 3 credits. This course illustrates how to integrate the insights and models of different disciplines to address key environmental management questions facing society. Examples are drawn from across pollution and natural resource issues so that students can become familiar with a diverse set of issues. The course illustrates the merits of learning about the natural sciences, engineering, and economics in order to practice environmental management. Robert O. Mendelsohn]

Capstone

F&ES 953a or b, Business and the Environment Consulting Clinic 3 credits. In this class, students work as a team on a specific project for an external organization. It provides students with an opportunity to apply their knowledge of business and environmental issues to real-life situations. It also provides a unique opportunity for students to manage a real-life client consulting engagement. Examples of projects include (1) developing a sustainability reporting strategy for a company; (2) assessing water risk in a company’s supply chain; and (3) recommending operational improvements around energy usage, waste disposal, etc. The intent is to provide a “capstone” experience, calling for the application of skills and tools learned from previous classes. Class sessions consist of a mix of in-class lectures, team meetings with the instructor, and guest lecturers. Lectures address topics such as project management and business strategy. Guest speakers discuss various environmental and sustainability topics such as sustainability reporting and environmental certifications and labeling. Prerequisites for F&ES students applying to the clinic are at least one of the following courses (or equivalent experience): F&ES 578, 680, 807, 821. Enrollment limited to twenty-four. Maureen Burke

F&ES 954a, Management Plans for Protected Areas 6 credits. A seminar that comprises the documentation of land use history and zoning, mapping and interpretation, and the collection and analysis of socioeconomic, biological, and physical information for the construction of management plans. Plans are constructed for private smallholders within the Quiet Corner Initiative partnership managed by the Yale School Forests. In the past, plans have been completed for the Nature Conservancy; Massachusetts Trustees of Reservations; town land trusts; city parks and woodlands of New Haven, New York, and Boston; and the Appalachian Mountain Club. Prerequisite: F&ES 659 or permission of the instructor. Ten days fieldwork. Enrollment limited to twenty. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 955a or b, Seminar in Research Analysis and Communication in Forest Ecology 3 credits. Students work through the peer-review publication process on data sets and projects in applied forest ecology. Discussions involve rationale and hypothesis testing for a project, data analysis techniques, reporting and interpretation of results. It is expected that manuscripts developed in the course are worthy of publication and that oral presentations are of a caliber for subject area conferences and meetings. Prerequisite: F&ES 659 or permission of the instructor. Three hours lecture. Enrollment limited to twelve. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 958b, Interdisciplinary Strategies for Real-World Environmental Problem Solving 3 credits. Natural resource and environmental challenges have become increasingly complex. Solving them requires environmental leaders who understand the scientific, social, economic, legal, and political factors at play; have the capacity to develop comprehensive strategies to effectively address them; and can communicate their solutions to diverse audiences. This capstone course is designed to challenge students to apply the disciplinary and interdisciplinary knowledge and professional skills they have developed to real-world natural resource and environmental problems. Students work in teams with clients from the public and private sectors on contemporary national and international natural resource and environmental issues. Client projects challenge students’ ability to formulate science-based, integrated, and comprehensive solutions to complex problems as well as strategies for their implementation. Students are required to present their findings and recommendations to clients in a clear and convincing manner and demonstrate their ability to communicate the outcomes of their work to target audiences (which may include the public, policy makers, stakeholders, and/or the media). James R. Lyons

F&ES 961b, Entrepreneurial Venture Creation 3 credits. Entrepreneurship is all about starting and running your own business. Before starting a business, entrepreneurs must research the viability of their business and develop a strategy for executing the business. While the steps for doing this are often the same, regardless of the business, the specific issues and areas for investigation usually depend on the type of business and the industry it is in. This course offers students the opportunity for personalized coaching and feedback on their individual business concept. The course is for up to four teams of three to four students each, who want to pursue their own new start-up venture. Ventures must have the potential to be eligible for F&ES’s annual Sabin Prize or one of the other annual business venture competitions hosted across the University. This means they should have the potential to grow big by solving a large problem in a unique and feasible way. The scope of the work includes: (1) doing in-depth market, product, and competitor research; (2) creating a strategy for a viable business; (3) developing a financial model; (4) writing a professional-quality business plan; (5) developing an “investor pitch” presentation. There is an application process, and admission is by permission of the instructor. Meeting dates to be determined. Maureen Burke

[F&ES 964b, Large-Scale Conservation: Integrating Science, Management, and Policy 3 or 6 credits. Environmental sustainability and human dignity are important societal goals, but figuring out how to achieve them on large scales—geographic, temporal, and in terms of complexity—has proven to be extremely challenging. Abundant trend data show that many species, ecosystems, and other environmental and human systems are being overused, stressed, or degraded, thus undercutting the likelihood that we can reach sustainability and human rights for all. In addition, our institutions for science, management, and policy are not designed to address sustainability challenges on these scales. Over the last few decades numerous management and policy initiatives have been put forward to address large-scale resource use, including single and multiple use, parks and protected areas, ecosystem management, bioregional planning, integrated conservation and development, transboundary approaches, and adaptive governance. This course (a mixed seminar and practicum) explicitly uses an integrative (i.e., via interdisciplinary) framework to examine the conceptual and contextual basis for these efforts; compares and contrasts their scientific, management, and policy components; explores themes of leadership, problem solving, decision making, governance, change, and learning; and surveys cases from three arenas (terrestrial, aquatic, and marine). The course takes a problem-oriented, contextual, and multi-method approach that offers students conceptual, practical, and professional benefits. It includes readings, lectures, discussions, workshops, exercises, oral presentations, guest speakers, individual and small-group assignments, and possibly a field trip and group project. In past years the course has taken field trips to the Connecticut River system to evaluate region-wide conservation efforts, the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, and the Grand Canyon ecosystem. It also organized an international workshop focused on the Yellowstone to Yukon initiative, and assisted a major U.S. NGO plan for transboundary projects along the U.S.-Canadian border. Extensive student participation is required throughout. Enrollment limited to eighteen. Susan G. Clark]

F&ES 965b/ANTH 598b, Advanced Readings: Social Science of Conservation and Development 3 credits. This course is an advanced seminar on the social science theory of conservation and development, designed as an M.E.M. capstone course and to give M.E.Sc. and doctoral students a wider theoretical context for analyzing and writing up their research. The course traces the conceptual history of the social science theory of conservation and development, focusing on theories of power, governmentality, subject creation, and the economy. It examines relations between these theories, alternative theories, and how this history influences the field. The course covers the works of Michel Foucault most relevant to the field, important social scientists who have used Foucault’s ideas (e.g., Timothy Mitchell, Tania Li, Donald Moore, David Mosse, Anand Pandian), alternative theories of power (e.g., James Scott, Bruno Latour, Timothy Mitchell), applications of Foucault’s ideas to development (James Ferguson, Arturo Escobar), applications of Foucault’s ideas to the environment (especially Arun Agrawal, Bruce Braun, Eric Darier), theories of the economic subject (Peter Miller and Ted O’Leary, Anna Tsing, Katherine Rankin), Foucault on the economy and neoliberalism, the power of the economy in Tania Li, theories of resistance and counter-conduct (Foucault, Carl Death, James Scott), and Foucault and space. Students are expected to use the course to develop, and present in class, their own research and writing. Prerequisite: F&ES 839, 877, or 882. Three hours lecture/seminar. Enrollment limited to twelve. Carol Carpenter

[F&ES 966a, The Entrepreneurial Approach to Environmental Problem Solving 3 credits. This course provides a format for students ready to develop entrepreneurial plans for specific environmental businesses. There are two aspects to any business: knowing the technical subject, and understanding the business environment. It is assumed that students have a background in both aspects, and this course is to enable the students to work in groups to “flesh out” a business. The course has regular meetings, but much of the work—and reporting—is done by the students, with advice and input from the faculty and others at Yale and in the business world. The course (and its prerequisite) may be used in conjunction with competing for the Sabin Prize. Prerequisite: F&ES 657. Chadwick D. Oliver]

[F&ES 969b, Rapid Assessments in Forest Conservation 3 credits. An advanced interdisciplinary course concerned with assessing the protection and management of biologically diverse, complex forested ecosystems that produce various goods and services. Examples of independent case analyses concern landscape management of biogeographic regions in the Pacific Northwest, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Belize, central and southern Mexico, and the Panama Canal Watersheds. Students are encouraged to travel on extended class field trips to these regions. Prerequisite: F&ES 659 or permission of the instructor. Three hours lecture. Eight days fieldwork. Limited enrollment. Next offered spring 2018. Mark S. Ashton]

F&ES 970a or b/LAW 30164, Environmental Protection Clinic: Policy and Advocacy 3 credits. A clinical seminar in which students are engaged with actual environmental law and policy problems on behalf of client organizations (environmental groups, government agencies, international bodies, etc.). The class meets weekly, and students work ten to twelve hours per week in interdisciplinary groups (with students from the Law School and other departments or schools at Yale) on projects with a specific legal or policy product (e.g., draft legislation or regulations, hearing testimony, analytic studies, policy proposals, white papers, memos, etc.). Students may propose projects and client organizations, subject to approval by the instructor. Brief statement of interest required; please e-mail joshua.galperin@yale.edu for information. Enrollment limited to thirty. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. Joshua Galperin, David Hawkins, Lisa Suatoni

F&ES 971b, Land Use Clinic 3 credits. This clinic explores a variety of specific community land use topics of current concern and relevance to the field, to the curriculum, and to society. Potential project topics include renewable energy, natural resources, rural-based land uses, agriculture, and sustainable urban planning. Students work with the instructor to develop papers, research memorandums, presentations, and publications on a selected topic. The instructor or guest speakers lecture on specific topics related to student projects. Additionally, students attend field trips relevant to the curriculum and may participate in project meetings with clients. Students select from a project list or meet with the instructor to design a relevant project. Jessica Bacher

F&ES 972a or b/LAW 30165, Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic 1–6 credits. Open only to students who have successfully completed Environmental Protection Clinic: Policy and Advocacy (F&ES 970). Permission of the instructor required. Enrollment limited to twenty. This course follows the Yale Law School academic calendar. Joshua Galperin, David Hawkins, Lisa Suatoni

F&ES 974a/LAW 30187, Environmental Protection Clinic: Practice at the Intersection of Civil Rights and Environment Law 4 credits. Students have the opportunity to help launch Yale Law School’s new environmental justice clinic, which will be in its second term, and to develop a docket to improve environmental quality and public health in communities of color and low-income communities. In the wake of a national conversation about the water crisis in Flint and lead poisoning across the country, students will be in on the ground floor as the clinic takes on cases to address inequality in the distribution of health hazards as well as procedural inequities they face as they try to assert their own vision for the future of their neighborhoods, towns, and cities. The clinic’s work includes cases and advocacy projects to enforce civil rights in the environmental context, and, in the new political climate, work with clients to develop legal and advocacy strategies to address issues of environmental injustice in particular communities. In addition to civil rights compliance and enforcement in the environmental context, the clinic evaluates potential litigation and advocacy to address the sources and impacts of air and water contamination in disproportionately affected communities, with a focus on communities in Connecticut. Students also participate in a seminar intended to explore issues raised by the clinical practice, including both substantive issues of environmental and civil rights law, as well as questions related to practice, including ethical and social dimensions of lawyering in this context. The seminar meets approximately two hours per week. In addition to class meetings and preparation, students must complete and document approximately fifteen hours of clinical work per week. They are also expected to participate in two weekly one-half-hour team meetings. While there is no prerequisite for the clinic, participants should have a strong interest in working on behalf of environmentally overburdened communities—often communities of color and low-income communities. Limited enrollment. Permission of the instructor required. Non-Law students interested in the clinic should send a CV and one-page statement of interest to marianne.engleman-lado@yale.edu. Marianne Engelman Lado

F&ES 975a/LAW 30206, Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic: Fieldwork: Practice at the Intersection of Civil Rights and Environmental Law 1 to 4 credits. Students have the opportunity to continue the development of Yale Law School’s new environmental justice clinic and to develop a docket to improve environmental quality and public health in communities of color and low-income communities. In the wake of a national conversation about the water crisis in Flint and lead poisoning across the country, students will continue to be in on the ground floor as the clinic represents clients challenging inequality in the distribution of health hazards as well as procedural inequities they face as they seek to assert their own vision for the future of their neighborhoods, towns, and cities. The clinic’s work includes cases and advocacy projects to enforce civil rights in the environmental context and to address issues of environmental injustice in particular communities. Students must complete and document hours of clinical work per week commensurate with their credit hours. They are also expected to participate in weekly one-half-hour team meetings. Previous participation in the environmental justice clinic is a prerequisite for Advanced Fieldwork. Permission of the instructor required. Open only to students who completed the spring clinic. In addition to listing this clinic among experiential course selections, previous EJ Clinic students should submit a short statement expressing continued interest in the clinic to marianne.engelman-lado@yale.edu by June 22 at 4:30 p.m. Only F&ES students who receive 3 credits or more for this advanced clinic can count it as a capstone course. Marianne Engelman Lado

[F&ES 976b, Cities in Hot Water: Urban Climate Mitigation and Adaptation 3 credits. This capstone class works in partnership with the City of New Haven to analyze and make recommendations for how city planners and engineers should cope with heat stress and extreme rainfalls in current and future climate conditions. Higher temperatures and larger rainfall variability are the two most severe climate stresses predicted to impact the Northeastern part of the United States. The situation is worsened in urban centers owing to the urban heat island effect and concentrated stormwater runoff. Students are divided into teams, with each team consisting of members with complementary skills. Each team works closely with city partners, as well as staff in the Yale Office of Sustainability, the Community Alliance for Research and Engagement in the School of Public Health, and the Urban Resources Initiative in F&ES. Specific tasks include inventorying the efforts already under way in New Haven to prepare for changes in climate; reviewing existing urban climate strategies in major cities around the world; quantifying the likely range of severity of future climate stresses in the New Haven region; and identifying the impacts of these stressors on the lives of local residents. The final deliverables are designed to be helpful to the climate-related planning by the City of New Haven. Students may also have the opportunity to participate in field implementation of one or more mitigation actions. Assessment of student performance is based on class participation, class presentations, writing assignments, client feedback, and peer evaluations. Enrollment limited to twenty. Xuhui Lee, Bradford S. Gentry]

F&ES 977a, Creating Science Narratives for Solutions 3 credits. This course surveys, studies, and practices strategies toward effective climate and environmental science-based messaging with an eye toward public policy engagement and public interest. Students learn of new and emerging interdisciplinary research and theory in narratology, psychology, education, and cultural, social, and media sciences to help build skills they then practice in partnership with professional stakeholders on projects related to climate and energy policy, goals, and planning across the public and private sectors. Paul Lussier

Ecology

Community and Ecosystem Ecology

F&ES 634a, Ecology of Global Drylands 3 credits. This course explores the controls on the geographic distribution, community and ecosystem structure, and functioning of drylands globally. Lectures, writing, and student-led discussions. William Lauenroth

F&ES 681a, Ethnobotany 3 credits. Ethnobotany is the scientific study of mutual relationships among peoples, plants, and the environment. This course presents ethnobotany as a broad interdisciplinary field at the interface of anthropology and botany and discusses its methodology, ranging from plant inventories to multivariate analysis of plant knowledge. The course focuses on classic themes of interest to ethnobotany, such as the importance of plants for local livelihoods (including nutrition and medicine) and the ethnobotanical importance of selected plant families, but it also explores topics of current ethnobotanical investigation, such as urban ethnobotany, intellectual property rights, development cooperation, biocultural diversity, and conservation. The course topics have been selected to provide an all-round overview of how ethnobotany research has evolved over the past decades and to represent a well-rounded mix of theory and practice, with the aim to prepare an aspiring junior ethnobotanist for field research. Ina Vandebroek

F&ES 717b, Tropical Field Ecology 3 credits. This course is designed to give students firsthand knowledge of tropical biology and the issues surrounding conservation of biodiversity in a developing nation, through a combination of seminar-style discussions and a mandatory field trip over winter break. The emphasis is on active learning and developing independent research projects carried out during the field trip. Using a case-study approach, topics covered include patterns of biodiversity, tropical forest dynamics, reforestation, species interactions and coevolution, climate change impacts, ecosystem services, and human land use. Students also gain experience with study design, data collection methods, and statistical analysis. This year’s field trip is to Panama, a country famous for its high biological, cultural, and economic diversity. We visit a variety of forest ecosystems and hear from local and international scientists about current research in the field. Students undertake two short research projects and also learn basic identification and natural history of tropical plant, bird, and insect species. Students should expect to spend a major part of each day outside in the natural tropical environment under adverse conditions. Enrollment limited to fifteen, with priority given to students who have taken F&ES 725. Liza S. Comita, Simon A. Queenborough

F&ES 723a, Wetlands Ecology, Conservation, and Management 3 credits. Wetlands are ubiquitous. Collectively they cover 370,000 square miles in the United States and globally encompass more than five million square miles. Most points on a map are less than one kilometer from the nearest wetland. Yet wetlands are nearly invisible to most people. In this course we explore wetlands in all of their dimensions, including the critical services they provide to other systems, the rich biodiversity they harbor, and the links by which they connect to other systems. Additionally, wetlands are lynchpin environments for scientific policy and regulation. The overarching aim of the course is to connect what we know about wetlands from a scientific perspective to the ways in which wetlands matter for people. L. Kealoha Freidenburg

[F&ES 731b, Tropical Field Botany 3 credits. This course teaches students how to identify the most important tropical plant families, with an emphasis on woody taxa. Students learn key characteristics for identification. We concentrate on families that have high economic, ecological, or ethnobotanical importance. We also discuss distribution, habitat, and ecology. The course has a strong practical component, and instructors emphasize vegetative characters to identify families and higher-level taxa. The course includes a two-week field trip to Costa Rica over spring break. Enrollment limited to twelve. NYBG Faculty: Lawrence Kelly, Fabian Michelangeli]

[F&ES 733b, Synthesizing Environmental Science for Policy 3 credits. A seminar exploring science-based environmental policy in order to direct scientific synthesis as well as new research that meets the criteria for policy relevance. The seminar involves two discussions each week and relies on concepts and data from ecological and biogeochemical disciplines to predict and manage the impacts of environmental changes, such as invasive species and changing climate, on supporting ecosystem services that underlie the provisioning of resources such as food and clean water. Prerequisites: F&ES 500 and 515, or permission of the instructor. Mark A. Bradford]

F&ES 734b, Biological Oceanography 3 credits. This natural science course provides a foundation for those interested in the ecology and management of marine systems. It includes an exploration of a range of coastal and pelagic ecosystems as well as relationships between biological systems and the physical processes that control the movements of water and productivity of marine systems. The course also covers anthropogenic impacts on oceans, such as the effects of fishing and climate change. Includes up to three Friday field trips. Recommended prerequisite: college-level biology or ecology course. Three hours lecture. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Mary Beth Decker

[F&ES 741b, Introduction to Indigenous Silviculture 3 credits. The course examines small-holder management systems in the tropics from several different perspectives. A brief overview of tropical forest ecology is provided first, with an emphasis on the factors that limit the nature and intensity of resource use. An analysis of silviculture as applied forest ecology follows, together with a description of the major silvicultural systems employed commercially throughout the world. The distinct operational and contextual differences between conventional and indigenous forms of forest management are presented, and the three main types of indigenous silvicultural practice are defined and described in detail. Examples from Asia, Central America, South America, and Africa are provided to illustrate each system. The relative economic, social, and ecological benefits of community forest management are discussed in detail, and the major constraints to a greater acceptance and application of the “conservation through sustainable use” paradigm are highlighted. A selection of case studies is used to examine existing policies that regulate the use, management, and trade of forest resources by local communities. A final lecture and discussion weave together these themes to assess the overall potential of managed landscapes as a viable conservation strategy. Charles M. Peters]

F&ES 752a, Ecology and Conservation of Tropical Forests 3 credits. Tropical forests contain extraordinarily high biological diversity and provide critical ecosystem services, yet are being rapidly destroyed and degraded by human activities. This course focuses on the structure, function, and diversity of intact and degraded tropical forests, with an emphasis on the ecological processes that shape these unique and diverse ecosystems. We also discuss the major threats to tropical forests, as well as examples of tropical forest recovery following disturbance. The course involves a mix of lectures and student-led discussions. Students who successfully complete this course are given priority for Tropical Field Ecology (F&ES 717). Liza S. Comita

F&ES 768b, Pests, Pathogens, and Parasites in Natural and Managed Systems 2 credits. Insect and microbial natural enemies play an integral role in shaping ecological communities, but receive much less attention than more charismatic megafauna. In this seminar, we discuss the good, the bad, and the truly disgusting. Weekly meetings focus on student-led discussions of recent scientific articles. Topics include parasites as indicators of ecosystem health; climate change and insect herbivore outbreaks in temperate forests; the role of pathogens in maintaining tropical forest diversity; disease spillover between natural and managed systems; how escape from enemies contributes to the success of invasive species; emerging infectious diseases in wildlife; and parasitic mind control. Students gain a better understanding of species interactions in ecological communities and the importance of considering those interactions when making conservation and management decisions. Liza S. Comita

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Biology

[F&ES 736b, Ecology Seminar 1 credit. The ability to read and understand the literature is a critical skill. This seminar is structured to encourage participation in discussions of papers from the ecological literature. The specific papers to be read vary from year to year; however, each year we focus on papers that have made major contributions to the conceptual foundations of ecology. Many of the papers have direct or indirect relevance to applied issues such as the conservation of species and ecosystems. Seminar responsibilities include active participation in weekly meetings and the leadership of one discussion. David K. Skelly]

[F&ES 738a, Aquatic Ecology 4 credits. An intensive introduction to the ecology of populations and communities in freshwater systems. The aim of this class is to learn the concepts, patterns, and organisms important in lakes and streams along with the major techniques of information collection and analysis. Weekly field trips are used to gather data that form the basis of lab exercises and research projects. The course presumes familiarity with ecological concepts and terminology. Permission of the instructor required. David K. Skelly]

[F&ES 739b, Species and Ecosystem Conservation: An Integrated, Interdisciplinary Approach 3 credits. The loss of global biodiversity is a major problem with profound repercussions for present and future human generations. Professional conservationists now living are the last generation that can prevent the extinction of large numbers of species and the disruption of large-scale ecosystem processes. Professionals must not only apply relevant conservation sciences to these problems, but also bring to bear explicit knowledge about the real-world organizational and policy settings in which they will work and expert skills in influencing those systems. The course combines the problem-solving approaches of the conservation sciences with those of the policy sciences by surveying a range of policy and organizational contexts, theories, techniques, and professional settings using a variety of case studies. We typically have guests who focus on contemporary challenges and offer successful cases from their own experience. Students learn an interdisciplinary analytic framework and apply it to a case of their choice. The role and problem-solving styles of the individual professional in these complex contexts are emphasized. Students must keep a journal. Active student participation is required, as well as a presentation and a paper. The course helps students gain a very important skill set for problem solving and positions students to work for many nongovernmental, governmental, and business organizations, assuming leadership and problem-solving positions. Enrollment limited to sixteen; application required. Susan G. Clark]

[F&ES 740b, Dynamics of Ecological Systems 3 credits. The course provides students in-depth understanding of theory on multiple species interactions and dynamics including predation, competition, food chain, and food web interactions. Considerable emphasis is placed on mathematical modeling to formalize ideas about how species interactions structure ecological communities and to specify the appropriate focus of empirical research, study design, and data gathering. The course addresses contemporary issues in community and ecosystem ecology including scaling from individual behavior to community and ecosystem dynamics, the link between biodiversity and system stability, alternative dynamic regimes, spatially extended systems, and metacommunities. A course in calculus is recommended. Oswald J. Schmitz]

F&ES 744b, Conservation Science and Landscape Planning 4 credits. This advanced course applies ecological principles to understand and manage biodiversity and attendant ecosystem functioning and services in the anthropocene. The course addresses the ethical and functional basis for conservation and fosters thinking about why and how humans ought to share the planet with nonhuman life. It covers scientific principles such as evolution, life-history and the viability of species, species endangerment and extinction risk, the kinds of biodiversity, the spatial distribution of biodiversity, the functional roles of species in ecosystems, vulnerability and risk assessments, and valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services. The course applies these principles to the exploration of such topics as biodiversity’s role in the functioning and sustainability of ecological systems, restoration of environmental damages, conserving biodiversity in dynamic landscapes, adapting landscapes to climate change, balancing conservation with urban development and agriculture, and renewable energy siting. It provides students with the quantitative skills to conduct population viability analyses, geospatial analyses of the distribution of biodiversity across landscapes, vulnerability analyses, and decision-analysis to balance trade-offs among multiple objectives of human land development and biodiversity conservation. Prerequisites: F&ES 530 or equivalent course in population or community ecology, F&ES 755 or equivalent course in GIS, and F&ES 510 or equivalent course in statistical analysis of biological data. A course in economics or applied math for environmental studies is strongly encouraged. Oswald J. Schmitz

Environmental Education and Communication

F&ES 742b, Fundamentals of Working with People 3 credits. Using environmental science to help inform and change human actions is a key challenge for environmental managers. Doing so requires that professionals be able to work across different scales, including: (1) understanding their own values and ways of working, as well as those of others; (2) forming, working in, and leading teams reflecting a diversity of experiences and skills; (3) influencing the actions of the organizations within which they are working; and (4) building and managing collaborative networks with others in other organizations affecting the resource systems about which they care. The purpose of this course is to introduce students to the scholarship being done (mostly within management fields) on how best to make these connections, as well as the ways individuals are putting those lessons learned into action. The course also introduces students to the professors, individual courses, workshops, and other offerings across Yale that offer deeper dives into specific approaches to working more effectively with people. Stuart DeCew, Bradford S. Gentry

F&ES 745a, Environmental Writing 1 credit, half term, or 3 credits, full term. Students in this course should plan to produce one full-length article, 3,000 to 4,000 words, that could appear in a wide-circulation magazine such as Audubon, Orion, Sierra, or The New Yorker. One-credit students begin a potentially publishable article; three-credit students complete a publishable article. Admission is by application, which must include a proposed writing topic, at the beginning of the term. For information on applying, please see the course information at fes745.coursepress.yale.edu. Three hours seminar and writing workshops. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Fred Strebeigh

F&ES 747a, Global Communication Skills 3 credits. This course helps students to sharpen their language and strategy in professional communication. Course topics include accent reduction, language accuracy, writing styles, presentation skills, meeting leadership, barriers to communication, and types of persuasion in multicultural contexts. We first address aspects of intelligibility, exploring how improved word choices and speech clarity affect audience understanding. We then look at the problem of comprehension and discuss strategies for increasing the student’s ability to listen accurately and read efficiently. We also examine common difficulties and cultural differences in the arrangement of information, use of evidence, and academic argumentation. Several sessions are devoted to specific skills, such as negotiating agreements and writing research reports. The course meets for lecture (two hours), and students attend a weekly small-group practicum (one hour). The practicum allows students to reinforce new communicative behaviors in oral and written assignments, while receiving feedback from peers and the instructor. As students polish their skills, they improve their ability to express ideas and to interact in both academic and professional contexts. Enrollment limited to fifteen. William A. Vance

F&ES 750a, Writing the World 3 credits. This is a practical writing course meant to develop your skills as a writer. But its real subject is perception and the writer’s authority—the relationship between what you notice in the world around you and what, culturally speaking, you are allowed to notice. What you write during the term is driven entirely by your own interest and attention. How you write is the question at hand. We explore the overlapping habitats of language—present and past—and the natural environment. And, to a lesser extent, we explore the character of persuasion in environmental themes. Every member of the class writes every week, and we all read what everyone writes every week. It makes no difference whether you are a would-be journalist, scientist, environmental advocate, or policy maker. The goal is to rework your writing and sharpen your perceptions, both sensory and intellectual. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Verlyn Klinkenborg

F&ES 900a, Doctoral Student Seminar and Responsible Conduct of Research 3 credits. This course provides an introduction to doctoral study at the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies. Students attend the F&ES Wednesday seminar each week and then meet with the seminar speakers after their presentations. Weekly assigned readings support these discussions, which are used as a foundation to explore diverse approaches to formulating and addressing research questions. Students also work with their advisers to design an assignment to be completed during the term. Students may choose to write and submit a fellowship application (e.g., to NSF, NASA, EPA), carry out a literature review, or develop a collaborative research project. Students present their embryonic research ideas in class and use feedback from the group to further develop their ideas. The course also introduces the topic of research misconduct with examples of specific cases. Concepts and resources for responsible conduct of research are discussed in the areas of data acquisition and management, authorship and publication, peer review, conflicts of interest, mentoring, collaborative research, and animal and human subjects research. Required of all doctoral students in their first term. Karen Seto

F&ES 902a or b, Environmental Anthropology Research Lab 1 credit, pass/fail. A biweekly seminar for Dove doctoral advisees and students in the combined F&ES/Anthropology doctoral degree program. It consists of the presentation and discussion of dissertation prospectuses and proposals, dissertation chapters, and related publications; collaborative writing and publishing projects on subjects of common interest; and discussion of such topics as grantsmanship, data analysis, writing and publishing, and the job search. Two-hour seminar. Michael R. Dove

F&ES 910b, Survival Skills for Finishing Doctoral Students 3 credits, pass/fail. This course is aimed at preparing advanced doctoral students for successful and rewarding careers in ecology and environmental science. Students learn about academic and non-academic careers from readings of and presentations by scientists in those positions. Students identify important steps toward planning and launching their career paths, and skills for being effective in these positions; and they develop their own career plan, curriculum vitae, teaching and research plans, and critiques of professional Web pages. Finally, the course exposes students to resources and opportunities for continuing to apply and polish their skills. William Lauenroth, Ingrid C. Burke

Forestry

Forest Biology

F&ES 652b, Wood: Structure and Function 3 credits. This course focuses on the extraordinary diversity of wood anatomy at the cellular level, and on the practice of dendrochronology that allows students to take advantage of predictable, inter-annual variability in tree growth to reconstruct environmental history. The primary focus of the course is on common northeastern trees and other commercially important timber species. A primary goal is to participate in the development of a master tree-ring chronology for the School forests. Basic statistics and a background in tree physiology and anatomy are strongly recommended. Craig R. Brodersen

F&ES 654a/MCDB 660a, Anatomy, Physiology, and Development of Trees and Other Vascular Plants 3 credits. This course focuses on two aspects of plant life: (1) basic processes that drive plant development, such as seed formation, germination, seedling establishment, maturation, and senescence; and (2) basic structure and function of plants (such as root systems, leaf formation and development, height, and diameter growth). Differences between different groups of seed plants are analyzed from structural, functional, ecological, and evolutionary standpoints. Special attention is given to woody plants and their importance in the biosphere and human life. Coverage includes tropical, temperate, and boreal trees. Plant biology is discussed in the context of physiological and structural adaptations in terms of strength, storage, and water and solute transport. Graeme P. Berlyn

[F&ES 655b, Research Methods of the Anatomy and Physiology of Trees 4 credits. Advanced investigative techniques with emphasis on instrumentation, experimental design, execution, and analyses. After a series of class experiments and demonstrations are completed, each student selects a personal project under the direction of the instructor and prepares a minidissertation complete with literature review, materials and methods, results, and discussion. Weekly seminars and progress reports on the projects are required. Prerequisites: F&ES 654 and 656 and permission of the instructor. Four hours lecture/laboratory. Limited enrollment. Graeme P. Berlyn]

F&ES 656b, Tree Physiology and Ecophysiology 3 credits. Mineral nutrition and cycling, mycorrhizas, symbiosis, nitrogen fixation, light processing, photosynthesis, respiration, water relations including transpiration, and ecophysiology are covered. The interaction of photosynthesis with water relations, mineral nutrition, temperature, and environmental stress is discussed. Effects of climate changes on forests, past and present, and other current topics are also considered. Term paper required. Graeme P. Berlyn

F&ES 671a, Temperate Woody Plant Taxonomy and Dendrology 3 credits. Dendrology literally translates as “the study of trees” and integrates morphology, phenology, ecology, biogeography, and the natural history of tree species. In this course students learn how to identify the major temperate plant families, with a focus on North American forest species. In addition, they learn the morphological and ecological traits used for field identification of woody plants. We use phylogenetic systematics as the structure for understanding the evolutionary history and relationships between species. Enrollment limited to thirteen. Marlyse C. Duguid

F&ES 674b, Seminar in Forest Health 3 credits. This course is an introduction to the biotic and abiotic agents affecting the health of forest ecosystems and forest sustainability, including insects, pathogens, parasites, climate change, and other large-scale disturbances, and includes the consideration of linkages between forest health and human health. Using a case-study approach, several different forest types are examined in detail, with students interacting with research and management professionals who visit the class in person or via remote conferencing. Students learn concepts and methods of assessing forest health, as well as some of the challenges in describing and defining forest health. The course emphasizes the ecological roles played by disturbance agents (both biotic and abiotic), discusses how they affect the health and sustainability of forest ecosystems, and identifies when and how management can be used to improve forest health and/or forest sustainability to manage or mitigate disturbance agents such as invasive pathogens and insects. The course provides students with the necessary background to determine how different stressors may negatively impact management objectives, to identify the probable stress agents, and to decide what, if any, actions should be initiated to protect forest health and sustainability. The course includes several field trips and workshops on the weekends. Mark S. Ashton, Talbot Trotter III

F&ES 679a, Plant Ecophysiology 3 credits. This course focuses on the physiological ecology of plants and their interaction with the biotic and abiotic environment, understood through the lens of first principles. We use a quantitative approach to demonstrate the linkages between photosynthesis, growth, and carbon allocation at the tissue and whole plant level, which can then be scaled up to forests and ecosystems. We also focus on specific physiological and anatomical adaptations plants use to survive in the many varied habitats on Earth. The laboratory component of this course (F&ES 679L) involves the theory, programming, and deployment of micrometeorological equipment to monitor environmental conditions in the field; as well as methods for measuring photosynthesis and growth in the greenhouse and field. Craig R. Brodersen

F&ES 679La, Lab: Plant Ecophysiology 1 credit. Craig R. Brodersen

F&ES 691b, Trees: Environmental Biology 3 credits. Underlying principles that govern tree biology in both time and space. Water transport, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis, growth, and reproduction from individual plant organs to the tree and forest canopy. Principles of cells and membranes; the fundamental differences between plant and animal cells; regional and global patterns in forest dynamics; implications of disruptions in the biotic and abiotic environment. Case studies focus on understanding forests and forest products and their global significance, including building materials, furniture, and musical instruments. Craig R. Brodersen

Forest Management

[F&ES 657b, Managing Resources 3 credits. Resource sustainability requires knowing how to “get things done” with resources, whether one’s goal is policy, investment, or on-the-ground management. The challenge of resource management is knowing how to provide the many commodity and noncommodity objectives people demand from the terrestrial ecosystems across time and space. This management can be cost-effective and applicable to many places with the proper integration of management and social scientific knowledge. Students master the scientific basis, methods (and reasons for the methods), and techniques for management of various resources. The course covers managing an ecosystem with concerns about water, agriculture, grazing, wildlife, timber, recreation, people, and hazards of wind, fire, avalanche, and flood. The class examines the basic issues and describes tools and techniques for analyzing and managing. Case studies of specific areas are used for many of the analyses. The course covers systems concepts; decision analysis; area, volume, and other regulatory systems; silvicultural pathways; growth models; wind and fire hazard analyses; habitat and biodiversity analyses; carbon sequestration; payment for ecosystem services; cash flow; operations scheduling; portfolio management; monitoring; and continuous quality improvement and adaptive management. Class includes lectures and exercises in which students integrate these subjects. Chadwick D. Oliver]

[F&ES 658a, Global Resources, International Resource Exchanges, and the Environment 3 credits. Students first learn the global distribution of resources—the amounts, importance, and causes of distribution, and potential changes of soils, water, biodiversity, human societies, energy sources, climates, agriculture, forests and forest products, minerals, and disturbances. They also learn how to analyze and interpret data on global resource distributions. Secondly, they gain an understanding of the value of multiple-country trading of resources. Thirdly, they gain an understanding of the many mechanisms that facilitate such exchanges, including policies and treaties; business, markets, trading partners, and economics; “good will”; social “taboos”; force; news media; philanthropy; skillful negotiations; cultural/social affiliation; technologies; shared infrastructures; and others. Four teaching methods are used: lectures on the different resources and policy mechanisms; analytical exercises for understanding how to use and interpret international data—and its limitations; a class negotiation exercise for learning the uses of international trade; and guest lectures by faculty and meetings with practitioners for learning the facilitation mechanisms. Three hours lecture; possible field trips. Chadwick D. Oliver, other faculty, and guest speakers]

F&ES 659b, The Practice of Silviculture: Principles in Applied Forest Ecology 4 credits. The scientific principles and techniques of controlling, protecting, and restoring the regeneration, composition, and growth of natural forest vegetation and its plantation and agroforestry analogs worldwide. Analysis of biological and socioeconomic problems affecting specific forest stands and design of silvicultural systems to solve these problems. Applications are discussed for management of wildlife habitat, bioenergy and carbon sequestration, water resources, urban environments, timber and nontimber products, and landscape design. Recommended: some knowledge of soils, ecology, plant physiology, human behavior, and resource economics. Four to six hours lecture. One hour tutorial. Seven days fieldwork. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 660a, Forest Dynamics 3 credits. This course reviews the biophysical drivers of stand development in forest ecosystems. We begin by briefly exploring the ecophysiology of woody plants, the distribution of trees and forests, and plant community theory. We build on this basis focusing on the ecology and developmental dynamics of complex forest systems. Lectures, exercises, and readings drawn from the scientific and popular literature are supported by field trips exploring disturbance and stand development in New England forests. This class is a core component of the M.F. degree but is explicitly designed to be accessible to anyone interested in an in-depth exploration of forest ecosystems. Kristofer R. Covey

F&ES 668b, Field Trips in Forest Resource Management and Silviculture 1 credit. Seven- to twelve-day field trips to study the silviculture and forest management of particular forest regions. In previous years, classes have visited Slovenia, Germany, Austria, the United Kingdom, British Columbia, and, in the United States, the southern Coastal Plain and Piedmont, and the Allegheny, Appalachian, Adirondack, and Green mountains. Enrollment limited to sixteen. Mark S. Ashton

F&ES 669b, Forest Ecosystem Management and Operations 4 credits. This second-year capstone course introduces students to the quantitative, socioeconomic, and legal aspects of managing forested landscapes for different landowners and social values. Part 1 covers a variety of quantitative decision support tools that are used by land managers and investors to predict ecological and financial outcomes on managed forestlands. Topics include growth and yield modeling, a tool used to anticipate future forest conditions and understand the associated changes in value. Exercises demonstrate how to integrate information into decision support tools for financial modeling of timber investments and carbon markets. The course progresses from the theoretical framework of G&Y models and the inventories they are based upon, to hands-on application using real models and sample datasets. Students then input the results from the modeling exercises (timber yield or other ecosystems services such as carbon or water) into financial models to see how harvests and other management decisions affect forestland values and revenues into the future. Part 2 uses the quantitative knowledge gained to describe the principles of sustained yield, forest regulation, allowable cut, and the scheduling of harvests and operations. Training is provided in landscape-level analysis of resource allocation between and among different products and services to society and to develop management prescriptions and decisions for different landowner scenarios. Students identify management objectives for various properties and ownership types and integrate scientific knowledge and both timber and nontimber considerations with landowner objectives to derive management prescriptions and decisions. Forest certification systems (FSC, SFI, ATF, PEFC) are reviewed, including comparison of standards, implementation strategies, and the benefits/costs to various types of landowners (public, large for-profit private, large not-for-profit private, small private). Part 3, the field trip and workshop component, covers the operational aspects of managing forestland. Field trips are local and are organized to view forestry operations and to develop and refine field skills. Topics essential to professional practice include harvesting (planning, layout, implementation, and post-operation evaluation); assessments of (best) management practices; regulatory and wetlands considerations; and the legal and socioeconomic aspects of sale organization, contracts, and marketing of products. The ethical and professional responsibilities of forest managers who are responsible for land-altering activities are also considered in a required satisfactory completion workshop. The course assumes knowledge of forest biology, forest measurements, silviculture, and economics. Faculty

F&ES 670b, Southern Forest and Forestry Field Trip 1 credit. This course augments our forestry curriculum by providing a forum for viewing and discussing forestry and forest management with practitioners. The trip provides M.F. candidates and other interested students with an opportunity to experience the diversity of southeastern forested ecosystems and ownership objectives ranging from intensively managed pine plantations to restoration and protection of endangered habitats. Students discuss forest management issues—including forest health, fragmentation, policy, law, and business perspectives—with landowners and managers from large industries, nonindustrial private landowners, TIMOs, federal and state land managers, NGOs, and forestry consultants. We also tour sawmills, paper mills, and other kinds of forest products processing facilities, active logging operations, and, weather permitting, participate on prescribed fires. Not least, we experience the unique cultures, food, and hospitality of the southeastern United States. The course can be taken for 1 credit by any student at F&ES or combined with the 2-credit Forest Management Operations (F&ES 669) for 3 credits. Faculty

F&ES 675b, Growth and Yield 2 credits. This advanced quantitative course introduces students to the variety of decision support tools used by land managers and investors to predict ecological and financial outcomes on managed forestlands. Growth and yield modeling is a tool used to anticipate future forest conditions and understand the associated changes in value. This course is designed for F&ES and SOM students interested in forestland management and investment to understand how these models function and how to integrate results of modeling exercises into decision support tools such as financial modeling for timber investment and carbon markets. The course progresses from the theoretical framework of G&Y models and the inventories they are based upon, to hands-on application using real models and sample datasets. Students then input the results from the modeling exercises (timber yield or other ecosystems services such as carbon or water) into financial models to see how harvests and other management decisions affect forestland values and revenues into the future. The course relies primarily on guest lecturers. Faculty

F&ES 680a, Forest and Ecosystem Finance 3 credits. Understanding the tools used in financial analysis is an important component of successful forestland investment and forest management decision making. In addition, as new ecosystem services markets develop, these skills become even more critical in determining those management strategies that are both ecologically sound and financially viable. This course provides students with a basic suite of financial tools used in the acquisition and management of forestland/timber as well as in the management of ecosystem services. It includes an overview of traditional financial analysis metrics used in land acquisition, timber management, and risk management. It also applies these metrics in ecosystem services markets, which allows students to assess the financial impacts of various management choices. Concepts are reinforced through spreadsheet-based exercises and case studies. Prerequisite: F&ES 578 or permission of the instructor. Deborah Spalding

F&ES 683b, Seminar in Tropical Forest Restoration in Human-Dominated Landscapes 3 credits. This seminar is focused on the biological and social science, management, and policy governing reforestation in tropical regions. Topics covered include the ecology and management of native species plantations and second-growth forests; understanding the social drivers and barriers of restoration; and becoming familiar with the methodological protocols of gathering and assessing social, economic, and cultural values. A particular emphasis is placed on tropical Asia and Latin America. Part of this course is taught online, part in a series of weekly discussions. Optional 1-credit field trip on dry tropical forest restoration, Azuero, Panama. Prerequisite: F&ES 659. Enrollment limited to twenty. Mark S. Ashton

Physical Sciences

Atmospheric Sciences

F&ES 700b, Alpine, Arctic, and Boreal Ecosystems Seminar 3 credits. Biogeoclimatic analysis of these systems worldwide with special attention to biogeography, biometeorology, physiology, histology, morphology, autecology, and silviculture of high-elevation and high-latitude forests through lectures, guest lectures and discussions, student seminars, and field experience. Graeme P. Berlyn, Xuhui Lee

F&ES 701a and b, Climate Change Economics Seminar 3 credits. The course reviews several valuation studies that form the backbone of modern greenhouse gas damage estimates. Each small group of students chooses a study; downloads the data and methods of that study from the authors or a journal; and then reproduces the published results. The purpose of this exercise is to replicate results, understand all the assumptions, and measure how sensitive the results are to these assumptions. The course meets every other week for the entire year to give students time to go through their studies and present their results to the class. Robert O. Mendelsohn, William Nordhaus

[F&ES 702b, Climate Change Seminar 2–3 credits. An advanced seminar that explores current topics in global climate change, including scientific evidence for global warming, climate change impacts on natural ecosystems and the human society, and policy and management options for mitigating climate change. Meetings are divided between student presentation, invited lecture, and panel debate on selected hot issues. Preference is given to second-year students, but first-year students with background and interest in the subject area are also encouraged to participate. Presentation/literature critique/term paper. Prerequisite: F&ES 703 or 704. Xuhui Lee]

[F&ES 704a, Workshop on Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry with Drones 1–3 credits. This workshop explores the current state and future outlook of remote sensing and photogrammetry with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) for environmental monitoring. UAV-based remote sensing is a rapidly developing field in environmental science and technology. Versatile and inexpensive, it has the potential to offer solutions in a wide range of applications, such as forestry inventory, precision agriculture, hazard assessment, pollution monitoring, and land surveys. The class meets once a week for three hours. The workshop is divided into three parts: (1) reviewing the state of the technology on UAV types, sensor configurations, and data acquisition methods; (2) exploring GIS and remote-sensing software tools for analyzing spectral data acquired by rotary- and fixed-wing drones at super high resolutions; (3) working with clients to complete a project on digital landscaping or other photogrammetry applications. Students have the opportunity to conduct drone flight missions. Data analysis/presentation/literature critique/field trips. Prerequisite: F&ES 726 or equivalent experience. Xuhui Lee]

F&ES 722a, Boundary Layer Meteorology 3 credits. This course examines the interactions between the atmosphere and Earth’s surface. Students gain an understanding of the surface energy and radiation balance, air motion in the atmospheric boundary layer, impacts of land use on surface climate, land surface parameterization for climate models, and field research methods. One outcome of the course is a solutions manual, authored by the students and to be published by Springer, for a new textbook on boundary layer meteorology. Three hours lecture and discussion. Data analysis/term paper/presentation. Permission of the instructor required. Xuhui Lee

Environmental Chemistry

[F&ES 706a, Organic Pollutants in the Environment 3 credits. An overview of the pollution problems posed by toxic organic chemicals, including petroleum, pesticides, PCBs, dioxins, chlorinated solvents, and emerging contaminants. Processes governing the environmental fate of organic pollutants, e.g., evaporation, bioconcentration, sorption, biodegradation. Technologies for prevention and remediation of organic pollution. Previous experience with organic chemistry is not required. Shimon C. Anisfeld]

F&ES 707b/ENAS 640b, Aquatic Chemistry 4 credits. A detailed examination of the principles governing chemical reactions in water. Emphasis on developing the ability to predict the aqueous chemistry of natural, engineered, and perturbed systems based on a knowledge of their biogeochemical setting. Calculation of quantitative solutions to chemical equilibria. Focus on inorganic chemistry. Topics include acid-base equilibria, alkalinity, speciation, elementary thermodynamics, solubility, mineral stability, redox chemistry, and surface complexation reactions. Prerequisites: general chemistry and a working knowledge of algebra; F&ES 708 or equivalent is desirable, but not required. Three hours lecture, weekly problem sets. Gaboury Benoit

F&ES 708a, Biogeochemistry and Pollution 3 credits. A descriptive overview of baseline biogeochemistry and the nature and behavior of pollutants in the environment. The course is designed to aid future environmental professionals who sometimes may find it necessary to make decisions based on knowledge of environmental chemistry. It is geared to the nonspecialist who needs to establish familiarity with various classes of pollutants and the chemical, biological, and physical processes that control their sources, behavior, toxicity, and fate. Topics include the fundamental kinds of chemical reactions in the environment, critical analysis of chemical data, sampling techniques, analytical methods, natural biogeochemical controls on environmental chemistry, water treatment, and green infrastructure, as well as detailed examination of contaminants of special interest like acid precipitation, nutrients, urban runoff, and sewage. Prerequisite: college-level general chemistry. Three hours lecture. One class project, problem sets, midterm, final exam. A small number of field trips. Gaboury Benoit

F&ES 773a, Air Pollution Control 3 credits. An overview of air quality problems worldwide with a focus on emissions, chemistry, transport, and other processes that govern dynamic behavior in the atmosphere. Quantitative assessment of the determining factors of air pollution (e.g., transportation and other combustion-related sources, chemical transformations), climate change, photochemical “smog,” pollutant measurement techniques, and air quality management strategies. Drew R. Gentner

Soil Science

[F&ES 709a, Soil Science 3 credits. Lectures, labs, and discussions of soil science, with emphasis on soil ecology. Topics cover the structure and functioning of soils, and how this relates to soil fertility and ecosystem health in a changing environment. Prerequisites: F&ES 500 and 515, or permission of the instructor. Mark A. Bradford]

Water Resources

F&ES 644a, Watershed Science 3 credits. Watershed science is a powerful scientific approach that utilizes the watershed unit and the integrative nature of water to solve problems. This class in watershed science is designed to cover fundamental knowledge, tools, and case studies that have emerged through research over the past fifty years. Included are units on watershed classification, hydrology, chemistry, models, management, and case studies. The goal is to provide students with a knowledge and tool base that allows them to be system thinkers with respect to modern-day environmental problems. Peter A. Raymond

F&ES 710b, Coastal Governance 3 credits. Effective governance combines a basic understanding of natural systems with human values to create new coastal institutions. Single-use regulations of the past (energy, wastewater, ports, marsh conservation) are being replaced by more holistic thinking (spatial management and/or ecosystem-based management). To understand the state of this transition, policy analysis frameworks are applied to sector-based and ecosystem-based management initiatives. Term projects allow student teams to consider the merit of various alternatives that they create to address contemporary problems, which have included sea-level rise, hurricane damage, fisheries, and management in developing countries. F&ES 515 and 525 or equivalent knowledge recommended. Three hours seminar; term project. Enrollment limited to eighteen. Richard Burroughs

F&ES 712b, Water Resource Management 4 credits. An intermediate-level exploration of water resource management at scales ranging from local to global. The course looks at multiple dimensions of the water crisis, including both human and ecosystem impacts, quantity and quality issues, and science and policy. Theory is illustrated through a variety of case studies. Topics covered include global water resources; flooding; water scarcity; residential, agricultural, and industrial water use; water and health; impacts of climate change and land use change; stormwater management; dams and other technologies for water management; human impacts on aquatic ecosystems; water and energy; water economics; water rights and water conflict and cooperation. Prerequisites: F&ES 515 and 610. Enrollment limited to sixteen. Shimon C. Anisfeld

F&ES 713a, Coastal Ecosystems 4 credits. An examination of the natural processes controlling coastal ecosystems, the anthropogenic threats to the health of these systems, and the potential for restoration. Coverage of estuaries, rocky shores, seagrass meadows, coral reefs, and mangrove swamps, with a special emphasis on tidal marshes. The course covers a wide range of physical, chemical, and ecological processes. Anthropogenic impacts covered range from local to global and include nutrient enrichment, hypoxia, sea-level rise, invasive species, over-fishing, chemical pollution, marsh drowning, and wetland filling. Shimon C. Anisfeld

[F&ES 714b/ENAS 646b, Environmental Hydrology 3 credits. Exploration of the roles of natural processes and anthropogenic activities in regulating the quantity, distribution, and chemical composition of Earth’s freshwater. Students gain exposure to theoretical and applied elements of surface and subsurface hydrology. The theory covered in the course focuses on hydrologic phenomena of societal and environmental importance, including stream-flow generation, wetland-water cycling, groundwater-flow dynamics, contaminant migration in surface and groundwater, and water use and redistribution by plants. Application of theory is accomplished through student use of hydrologic simulation models, which are expressions of theory and essential tools of water-resource management and assessment. Intended as a first course in scientific hydrology; appropriate for M.E.M., M.E.Sc., and Ph.D. students, as well as for advanced undergraduates. Because hydrology is a quantitative science, treatment of the course subject matter involves mathematics. F&ES 714 is designed for students who typically do not have previous course work in mathematics beyond one semester of college-level calculus. Students who have not completed a college-level calculus course can succeed in F&ES 714 provided that they are comfortable with arithmetic operations and algebra and are willing to learn a few, very basic principles of introductory calculus. Although students use hydrologic simulation models, the course does not involve any computer programming and requires no special computer skills. James E. Saiers]

F&ES 715b, Water Science Seminar 3 credits. This class reads biogeochemistry papers from the primary literature, focusing on new papers across a spectrum of topics and ecosystem types. Papers are chosen by the instructor with some input from students. Students read and critique each paper. The primary author of the paper is then interviewed via Skype by the entire class. The course meets once a week. Enrollment limited to twelve. Peter A. Raymond

[F&ES 724b, Watershed Cycles and Processes 3 credits. This course explores abiotic and biotic controls on the cycling of water and chemicals within watershed systems. Students gain an understanding of the coupled roles of climate, hydrology, and biogeochemistry in regulating the fate of nutrients, carbon, and pollutants in watersheds. The class also features six guest lectures on issues at the forefront of watershed science. Upon successful completion of the course, students have acquired scientific knowledge that is relevant to interpreting watershed-based observations and to informing watershed-management decisions. Peter A. Raymond, James E. Saiers]

F&ES 729b, Caribbean Coastal Development: Cesium and CZM 3 credits. A field-intensive seminar exploring human-ecosystem interactions at the land-sea interface in the Caribbean, with Roatan, Honduras, as the focus site. Many tropical islands are undergoing rapid, uncontrolled development, placing severe local stress on several unique and vulnerable ecosystem types. In addition, human-induced environmental changes on scales up to global also impose stresses. This course examines the normal functioning of these ecosystems, scientific methods to evaluate and characterize ecosystem condition and processes, how human activities interfere with natural cycles in biophysical systems, and what management and policy tools can be applied to reduce impacts. An organizing framework for the course is the close coupling of coastal watersheds and adjacent marine ecosystems, especially coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass meadows. A major part of the course is a one-week field trip to the Caribbean during spring break. We also meet twice each week throughout the term to discuss readings and arrange logistics. Student presentations and projects. Enrollment limited to ten; priority given to F&ES students, with others admitted as space permits. Students are selected during the fall term. Gaboury Benoit, Mary Beth Decker

F&ES 732a, Hydrology and Riverine Geomorphology 3 credits. This course is designed to build a general understanding of the physical processes that control river channel formation, including climatology, erosion, and sedimentation, and their implications with respect to fluvial (river) geomorphology. The course examines the classic themes in precipitation, stream flow, statistical hydrology, river hydraulics, sediment transport and storage, riverine habitat and riparian vegetation, fluvial geomorphology, and stream rehabilitation. This course is designed to provide students with a mix of classroom theory, dataset management, and field experience. In addition, it provides students a global perspective on the interrelationship between the hydrologic processes and natural resources management. Jonathan Morrison

F&ES 777a, Water Quality Control 3 credits. Study of the preparation of water for domestic and other uses and the treatment of wastewater for recycling or discharge to the environment. Topics include processes for removal of organics and inorganics, regulation of dissolved oxygen, and techniques such as ion exchange, electrodialysis, reverse osmosis, activated carbon adsorption, and biological methods. Jaehong Kim

Quantitative and Research Methods

F&ES 550a, Natural Science Research Methods 3 credits. The course prepares students to design and execute an intensive research project. It covers elementary principles and philosophy of science; research planning, including preparation, criticism, and oral presentation of study plans; communicating research findings; limitations of research techniques; the structure of research organizations; and professional scientific ethics. Xuhui Lee

F&ES 551a, Qualitative Social Science Research 3 credits. This course is designed to provide a broad introduction to issues of qualitative research methods and design. The course is intended for both doctoral students who are in the beginning stage of their dissertation research, as well as master’s students developing research proposals for their thesis projects. The course covers the basic techniques of designing qualitative research and for collecting, interpreting, and analyzing qualitative data. We explore three interrelated dimensions of research: theoretical foundations of science and research, specific methods available to researchers for data collection and analysis, and the application and practice of research methods. The final product for this course is a research proposal. Amity Doolittle

F&ES 552b, Master’s Student Research Conference 0 credits. One of the most important aspects of scientific research involves the communication of research findings to the wider scientific community. Therefore, second-year M.E.Sc. and M.F.S. students are required to present the results of their faculty-supervised research as participants in the Master’s Student Research Conference, a daylong event held near the end of the spring term. Student contributors participate by delivering a fifteen-minute oral presentation to the F&ES faculty and student body or by presenting a research poster in a session open to the F&ES community. Students receive a score of satisfactory completion for this effort. Matthew J. Kotchen

F&ES 611a, Data Science for Social Research: An Introduction 1 credit. This course provides an introduction to a rapidly growing and promising area of social scientific research that has accompanied the explosion of data in our digital age, as nearly every aspect of life is now connected (e.g., mobile phones, smart devices, social media) and digitized (book archives, government records, websites). Students are introduced to various techniques and software for collecting, cleaning, and analyzing data at large scales, especially text data (e.g., machine learning, topic modeling, location extraction, semantic networks). Strong emphasis is placed on integrating these methods into actual research, in hopes of moving new or ongoing student papers toward publication. Because of the pragmatic focus of the course, and because these techniques require various degrees of expertise, students are required to meet with the instructor throughout the term to best tailor data science to their particular project. Justin Farrell

F&ES 638a, Carbon Footprints—Modeling and Analysis 3 credits. Carbon footprints are important tools in climate policy making. Carbon footprints describe the greenhouse gas emissions associated with an activity, company, household, or nation and are based on a life-cycle perspective, assigning emissions of greenhouse gases to the end user. Carbon footprints are also discussed in connection with responsibility for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This course offers an introduction to the assessment of carbon footprints using input-output techniques and life-cycle assessment, and it examines scientific, policy, and management issues associated with carbon footprinting. It also offers an introduction to the analysis and interpretation of carbon footprint results. The course is split into two parts. In the first, students learn the techniques of carbon footprint modeling and analysis using generic tools such as MatLab and Excel through both lectures and exercises. The second part of the course is dedicated to assessing and understanding carbon footprints of areas of final demand (e.g., food), specific product groups (e.g., cars), or organizations (e.g., F&ES, YNHH). Grading is based on problem sets, a midterm exam, and a final project. The students must be comfortable with quantitative analysis and prepared to acquire basic programming and modeling skills. Prior knowledge of life-cycle assessment and industrial ecology is desirable and may be gained through taking F&ES 884. Edgar G. Hertwich

F&ES 720a, Introduction to R 3 credits. This seminar provides an overview and introduction to the statistical software R for the analysis and graphical presentation of natural and social science data. We follow a flipped style of teaching, with class time primarily used for worked examples and problems. Students also work together in small groups to analyze data from collaborators (or the student’s own data) with a view to publication. The course provides the practical training in R for theoretical courses such as F&ES 510 and 753; they can be taken concurrently or sequentially, although some statistics background is preferred. Simon A. Queenborough

F&ES 725a, Remote Sensing of Land Cover and Land Use Change 3 credits. This is an advanced course on the use of satellite remote sensing to monitor land use and land cover change. The course emphasizes digital image processing techniques to detect landscape dynamics using data from NASA’s satellites. Topics include pre-processing data for change detection, accuracy assessment of change maps, and methodologies to detect changes such as urban expansion, deforestation, seasonal variations in vegetation, agricultural expansion, vegetation health, and wildfires. Prerequisite: F&ES 726. Lecture and lab. Karen Seto

F&ES 726b/ARCG 762b/EMD 548b/G&G 562b, Observing Earth from Space 3 credits. A practical introduction to satellite image analysis of Earth’s surface. Students develop a theoretical foundation and practical skills for satellite remote sensing; gain an understanding of Earth’s surface, ocean, and atmosphere, including natural processes and human impacts; and establish familiarity with remote-sensing products and their applications. Topics include the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, satellite-borne radiometers, data transmission and storage, computer image analysis, the merging of satellite imagery with GIS and applications to weather and climate, oceanography, surficial geology, ecology and epidemiology, forestry, agriculture, archaeology, and watershed management. Classroom lectures are supplemented with laboratory exercises and short showcases on remote-sensing platforms and data products. Prerequisites: college-level physics or chemistry, two courses in geology and natural science of the environment or equivalents, and computer literacy. Weekly labs and problem sets; midterm exam; course project. Ronald B. Smith, Xuhui Lee

F&ES 751b, Sampling Methodology and Practice 3 credits. This course is intended to provide a fundamental understanding of the principles of statistical sampling, alternative estimators of population parameters, and the design basis for inference in survey sampling. Natural, ecological, and environmental resource applications of sampling are used to exemplify numerous sampling strategies. Sample designs to be studied include simple random; systematic; unequal probability, with and without replacement; stratified sampling; sampling with fixed-radius plots; horizontal point sampling; and line intercept. The Horvitz-Thompson, ratio, regression, and other estimators are introduced and used repeatedly throughout the course. Three hours lecture. Weekly and biweekly problem sets requiring the use of a computer spreadsheet. Timothy G. Gregoire

F&ES 753a, Regression Modeling of Ecological and Environmental Data 3 credits. This course in applied statistics assists scientific researchers in the analysis and interpretation of observational and field data. After considering the notion of a random variable, the statistical properties of linear transformations and linear combinations of random data are established. This serves as a foundation for the major topics of the course, which explore the estimation and fitting of linear and nonlinear regression models to observed data. Prerequisite: a course in introductory statistics. Three hours lecture. Statistical computing with R, weekly problem exercises. Timothy G. Gregoire

F&ES 754a, Geospatial Software Design 3 credits. This course introduces computer programming tools and techniques for the development and customization of geospatial data-processing capabilities. It relies heavily on use of the Python programming language in conjunction with ESRI’s ArcGIS and on JavaScript in conjunction with Google’s Earth Engine geographic information systems (GIS). Prerequisite: previous experience in GIS. Three hours lecture, problem sets. C. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 755b, Modeling Geographic Space 3 credits. An introduction to the conventions and capabilities of image-based (raster) geographic information systems (GIS) for the analysis and synthesis of spatial patterns and processes. In contrast to F&ES 756, the course is oriented more toward the qualities of geographic space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion) than the discrete objects that may occupy such space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required. C. Dana Tomlin

F&ES 756a, Modeling Geographic Objects 3 credits. This course offers a broad and practical introduction to the nature and use of drawing-based (vector) geographic information systems (GIS) for the preparation, interpretation, and presentation of digital cartographic data. In contrast to F&ES 755, the course is oriented more toward discrete objects in geographical space (e.g., water bodies, land parcels, or structures) than the qualities of that space itself (e.g., proximity, density, or interspersion). Three hours lecture, problem sets. No previous experience is required. C. Dana Tomlin

[F&ES 757b, Statistical Design of Experiments 3 credits. Principles of design for planned experiments, coupled with methods of analysis of experimental data. The course is applications-oriented using the results of established theory. The nuances, strengths, and weaknesses of a number of classical designs are discussed. These include completely randomized design, block designs, and split plot designs. The analysis of data from these designs is treated at length. This course also deals with the question of sample size estimation. Students may use R or SAS for the completion of assignments. Prerequisite: a prior course in introductory statistics. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer or Timothy G. Gregoire]

F&ES 758b, Multivariate Data Analysis in the Environmental Sciences 3 credits. An introduction to the analysis of multivariate data. Topics include multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), principal components analysis, cluster analysis (hierarchical clustering, k-means), canonical correlation, multidimensional scaling ordination methods, discriminate analysis, factor analysis, and structural equations modeling. Emphasis is placed on practical application of multivariate techniques to a variety of natural and social examples in the environmental sciences. Students are required to select a dataset early in the term for use throughout the term. There are regular assignments and a final project. Extensive use of computers is required—students may use any combination of R, SAS, SPSS, STATA, and MINITAB. Prerequisites: a prior course in introductory statistics and a good understanding of multiple linear regression. Three hours lecture/discussion. Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer

F&ES 762a, Applied Math for Environmental Studies (AMES): Foundations for Measuring and Modeling Environmental and Socioenvironmental Systems 3 credits. The language of mathematics is an important leg in the stool of interdisciplinary research and analysis, and many graduate courses at F&ES involve mathematical content. However, many graduate students have not taken a math course in years, and their math skills are rusty. Furthermore, many graduate-level mathematical concepts may be entirely new. Experience suggests that many students either opt out of taking courses they are truly interested in or muddle through, struggle with the math, and miss important concepts. AMES is meant to help students refresh or acquire new math skills and succeed in content and “toolbox” graduate-level courses. AMES provides a structured opportunity to learn a range of mathematical concepts used in environmental studies. The course assumes that, at a minimum, students took college algebra and perhaps a semester of calculus (but might not really remember it). Concepts are presented heuristically in a “how to” and “why” approach with examples from environmental studies. The goal is for students to be conversant and have intuition about (i.e., to demystify) why logs, exponents, derivatives, integrals, linear algebra, probability, optimization, stability analysis, and differential equations show up throughout environmental studies. Students learn (review) how to use these techniques. Also covered is a bit of history of math and an introduction to computer programming. Eli P. Fenichel

[F&ES 780b, Seminar in Forest Inventory 2 credits. An advanced seminar that explores the design and implementation of forest inventory. Topics are varied to meet the interest of the class, but generally include the evolution and current status of broad regional and national inventories in the United States and abroad. Each week readings are assigned from primary sources that document the development of, and motivation for, various sampling methods for forest inventory. These include fixed and variable radius plot sampling, 3P sampling, double sampling for stratification in forest inventory, sampling with partial replacement, and line intersect sampling. Time and interest permitting, there is discussion of some newer, more specialized methods such as Monte Carlo methods and randomized branch sampling. A familiarity with the precepts and vernacular of probability sampling or statistics is presumed. Prerequisite: F&ES 751. Timothy G. Gregoire]

[F&ES 781b/S&DS 674b, Applied Spatial Statistics 3 credits. An introduction to spatial statistical techniques with computer applications. Topics include modeling spatially correlated data, quantifying spatial association and autocorrelation, interpolation methods, variograms, kriging, and spatial point patterns. Examples are drawn from ecology, sociology, public health, and subjects proposed by students. Four to five lab/homework assignments and a final project. The class makes extensive use of the R programming language as well as ArcGIS. Timothy G. Gregoire, Jonathan D. Reuning-Scherer]

[F&ES 794b, Confronting Models with Data 1.5 credits. We read and discuss Hilborn and Mangel’s classic book, The Ecological Detective. This book covers philosophy of science and hypothesis testing and various frameworks for confronting models with data. The book makes use of real scientific and resource management problems to communicate concepts. While it focuses on ecology, the concepts are broadly applicable to all areas of environmental studies that use data and test hypotheses. It is also useful for students interested in using scientific results for policy and decision making. Students take turns leading discussion and write a short research proposal using concepts from the book. Eli P. Fenichel]

Social Sciences

Economics

F&ES 795b, Nature as Capital: Merging Ecological and Economic Models 3 credits. This course helps students understand concepts from and develop skills in natural resource economics. It is designed to familiarize students with concepts and tools for thinking about natural resources as capital assets with a specific link to quantitative measures that may be useful in assessing sustainability. Students gain a working knowledge of concepts necessary to apply capital theory to ecosystems and develop a skill set sufficient to build dynamic bioeconomic models that can help them approximate the value of changes in ecosystems. Students also learn computational tools in dynamic optimization, which are useful for forward-looking decision making. Eli P. Fenichel

[F&ES 802b, Valuing the Environment 3 credits. This quantitative course demonstrates alternative methods used to value environmental services. The course covers valuing pollution, ecosystems, and other natural resources. The focus of the course is on determining the “shadow price” of nonmarket resources that have no prices but yet are considered valuable by society. Taught every other year. Three hours lecture. Robert O. Mendelsohn]

F&ES 804b/ECON 737b, Economics of Environmental Natural Resource Management 3 credits. This course uses economic theory and empirical evidence to address pollution control, nonrenewable resource extraction, and renewable resource management. The course teaches students how to apply economics to real-world problems. The pollution section explains the origin of externalities, and their optimal regulation. The nonrenewable resource section focuses on how markets consume resources of limited size over time with applications to fossil fuels, metals, and minerals. The renewable resource section covers the management of water, land, and ecosystems. Robert O. Mendelsohn

F&ES 805a or b, Seminar on Environmental and Natural Resource Economics 1.5 credits. This seminar is based on outside speakers and internal student/faculty presentations oriented toward original research in the field of environmental and natural resource economics and policy. Presentations are aimed at the doctoral level, but interested master’s students may enroll with permission of the instructors. Eli P. Fenichel, Matthew J. Kotchen

[F&ES 904a, Doctoral Seminar in Environmental Economics 3 credits. This course critically examines a set of recent and also famous papers in environmental and resource economics. The purpose of each paper, its method, results, and conclusions are all discussed. The course is intended to prepare students for a career in economic research. Robert O. Mendelsohn]

[F&ES 905b, Doctoral Seminar in Environmental and Energy Economics 3 credits. This course is designed to bring doctoral students up to speed on the latest developments in the literature on environmental and energy economics. Key papers are presented, and associated mathematical and empirical methods are covered. Topics to be covered include uncertainty and climate change policy, estimating energy demand, electricity markets, and behavioral economics and the environment. A focus is on identifying areas that deserve future research attention. Open to advanced master’s students with permission of the instructor. Kenneth T. Gillingham]

Energy and the Environment

[F&ES 617a/AMST 744a/HIST 744a/HSHM 747a, Readings and Research in Energy History 3 credits. The history of energy in the United States and the world. Readings and discussion range widely across different forms of energy: animal power, biomass, and early hydropower; coal, oil, and atomic energy; and present-day hydraulic fracturing, wind, and solar. Themes include relations between energy producers and communities, including resistance to energy projects; cultural and social change associated with dominant energy regimes; labor struggles and environmental transformations; the global quest for oil; and changing national energy policies. We explore new approaches to writing and teaching the history of energy. Open to undergraduates with permission of the instructor. Paul Sabin]

F&ES 618a, Energy Policy in Practice 3 credits. Energy is pervasive in our economy and our lives. How energy is supplied and consumed has implications for economic competitiveness, employment, household welfare, national security, and the environment. While U.S. energy markets are generally deep and established, without appropriate regulation energy markets cannot be relied on to protect consumers or the environment, or to supply a range of nonmarket benefits. As a result, the United States has a long history of government intervention in energy markets. Recent years have seen far-reaching energy policy interventions, such as the Clean Power Plan and the elimination of the crude oil export ban, alongside rapid changes in energy markets, such as strong growth in oil and natural gas production from shale and steep drops in the cost of renewable energy technologies. While energy markets are regulated at all levels of government and in service of a range of objectives, this course focuses primarily on federal energy policy intervention that seeks to correct for externalities associated with production and consumption of energy. Dan G. Utech

F&ES 635b/MGT 683, Renewable Energy Project Finance 3 credits. The course is intended to be a practicum, exposing students to real-world tools of the trade as well as the theory underlying them. In place of a textbook, students are provided with approximately 400 pages of actual project documents used for a U.S. wind energy project constructed relatively recently. Through weekly homework assignments, students develop the skills necessary to construct a detailed financial model, largely comparable to what would be used by an investment firm, project developer, or independent power producer. Modeling skills include sizing debt capacity, sensitivity analysis, stochastic forecasting, taxes, and the creation of financial statements. Lectures also provide an introduction to risk management, energy market dynamics, alternative contractual structures, financial structuring, and the core engineering and risks inherent in the most common renewable energy technologies. Daniel Gross

F&ES 716b, Renewable Energy 3 credits. Introduction to renewable energy, including physical principles, existing and emerging technologies, and interaction with the environment. Energy demand; transmission and storage; generation by hydroelectric, wind, solar, biofuel, and geothermal sources, as well as waves and tidal generation. Includes field trips to conventional, hydroelectric, and wind-power facilities in Connecticut. Prerequisites: high school physics, chemistry, and mathematics; college-level science, engineering, and mathematics recommended. Ronald B. Smith

[F&ES 798Eb, China’s Energy and Environmental Sustainability Challenge 3 credits. Developing solutions for global energy and climate challenges necessitates an understanding of China. This course examines China’s economic rise in the context of its energy and environment, as they relate both within China and abroad. Issues of security, the long-term sustainability of current resource consumption and growth, and the need for innovative technology and policy are all challenges China’s energy system faces. At the same time, as the world’s largest consumer of energy and emitter of greenhouse gases, China has the ability to singlehandedly shape the course of the global climate system. The environmental consequences of China’s energy consumption and growth are also critical considerations, particularly as China’s air and water pollution have become transboundary in nature. This is the first joint course offered with students at Yale-NUS College in Singapore. Angel Hsu]

[F&ES 800b, Energy Economics and Policy Analysis 3 credits. This course examines energy policy issues that pertain to the environment, with a focus on providing tools for analyzing these issues. A primary objective is to apply economics to particular issues of energy markets, environmental impacts, investment in renewables, and other energy issues such as transportation and energy efficiency. We cover the economic and technical considerations behind a particular energy policy issue and then discuss a related article or case study. Prerequisites: F&ES 505 (or equivalent) and at least one course on energy. Kenneth T. Gillingham]

[F&ES 812b, Energy’s Impact on Freshwater Resources 3 credits. Energy development depends on freshwater. Water is consumed to mine uranium, tar sands, and coal; to recover oil and natural gas; and to grow biofuel feedstocks. More water is needed to convert these primary energy sources to useable forms of energy, such as electricity, refined fuels, and heat. Water appropriation for energy development alters stream flows and depletes aquifers, thereby exacerbating ecosystem stresses induced by freshwater demands of agriculture and other human needs. Energy development also influences freshwater quality, usually in deleterious ways. Coal-mine drainage, leaky oil and gas wells, hydraulic fracturing, and uranium processing are among the culprits tied to energy development that have been implicated in contamination of surface and subsurface waters. The burden of energy development on freshwater resources is increasing as the world’s economies grow. Changing this trajectory will not be easy, but progress will be made by those scientists and decision makers who understand the potential responses and vulnerabilities of freshwater resources to major forms of energy development. The course is intended to help students gain this understanding through analysis of the academic and professional literature on the linkages between freshwater systems and energy resource extraction, processing, and conversion. Readings focus on natural gas, oil, uranium, coal, bioenergy, and at least one other energy type chosen by student consensus. Water demand is also explored as a function of the energy sector. James E. Saiers]

F&ES 814a/MGT 563a, Energy Systems Analysis 3 credits. This lecture course offers a systems analysis approach to describe and explain the basics of energy systems, including all forms of energy (fossil and renewable), all sectors/activities of energy production/conversion, and all energy end uses, irrespective of the form of market transaction (commercial or noncommercial) or form of technology (traditional as well as novel advanced concepts) deployed. Students gain a comprehensive theoretical and empirical knowledge base from which to analyze energy-environmental issues as well as to assess energy investment projects. Special attention is given to introducing students to formal methods used to analyze energy systems or individual energy projects and also to discussing traditionally less-researched elements of energy systems (energy use in developing countries; energy densities and urban energy use; income, gender, and lifestyle differences in energy end-use patterns) in addition to currently dominant energy issues such as climate change. Active student participation is required, including completion of problem sets. Invited outside speakers and additional Professional Modules (scheduled as extra evening classes) complement topics covered in class. The class is open to all interested students and has no prerequisites. Students are advised that the time investment for successful completion of the class is significant. Faculty

F&ES 816b, Electric Utilities: An Industry in Transition 3 credits. The U.S. electric utility industry is a $370 billion business with capital expenditures on the order of $100 billion per year to replace aging infrastructure, implement new technologies, and meet new regulatory requirements. A reliable electricity infrastructure is essential for the U.S. economy and the health and safety of its citizens. The electric industry also has a significant impact on the environment. In the United States, electric power generation is responsible for about 40 percent of human-caused emissions of carbon dioxide, the primary greenhouse gas. Electric utilities in the United States are at a crossroads. Technological innovations, improving economics, and regulatory incentives provide a transformational opportunity to implement demand-side resources and distributed energy technologies that will both lower emissions and improve service to customers. Such significant changes could, however, disrupt existing utility business models and therefore may not be fully supported by incumbent utilities. This course focuses on the issues, challenges, risks, and trade-offs associated with moving the U.S. utility industry toward a cleaner, more sustainable energy future. We explore how utilities are regulated and how economic factors and regulatory policies influence outcomes and opportunities to align customer, environmental, and utility shareholder interests to craft win-win-win solutions. Lawrence Reilly

Environmental Policy

F&ES 615b, Environmental Policy in the European Union 3 credits. This course uses a spring break trip to Tenerife in the Canary Islands to augment a term-long exploration of environmental policy making in the European Union. On campus, we use lectures, readings, discussions, and writing to explore the methods and tools sanctioned by the European Union for analysis of environment impacts by the member states. This course also explores how the tools of environment impact analysis inform policy and decision making. William Lauenroth

F&ES 627a, American Environmentalism 1 credit. What is environmentalism? The purpose of this seminar is to rigorously discuss that question and use our answers to better understand why we work to protect the environment, with a constant focus on what diverse environmental perspectives mean for environmental policy and law. This course focuses on the tools and tactics of environmental protection, but also on the values that drive environmentalism. The course in part traces the history of environmentalism, studies campaign techniques, and analyzes environmental laws, but we look at these issues in the broader context of what it means to be an environmentalist. Through our discussions we try to construct a vision of effective and lasting environmentalism for the present and the future while challenging ourselves to think about our own values and theories of change, about why we entered this field in the first place. Joshua Galperin

F&ES 633a/LAW 30205, Advanced Environmental Protection Clinic: Seminar: Practice at the Intersection of Civil Rights and Environmental Law 1 credit; graded pass/fail. Students participating in F&ES 975 can participate in this advanced seminar, which is intended to dive into issues raised by the clinical practice, including both substantive issues of environmental and civil rights law, as well as questions related to practice, including ethical and social dimensions of lawyering in the environmental justice context. The seminar meets approximately one hour per week and is student-organized. Marianne Engelman Lado

F&ES 799a, Sustainable Development Goals and Implementation 3 credits. This course has students (working alone or in a small group) design a specific implementation plan for a specific country for a specific item that is part of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the U.N. in September 2015. Students study the new post-2015 sustainable development goals and their implementation in the real world. The course focuses primarily on understanding and developing the ability to effectively apply a variety of tools and means of implementation, relying primarily on guest lecturers. The aim is for each student or group of students to combine a geographic area/region (for example, a country of key interest), a sustainable development goal, and a tool for implementation to design an effective implementation strategy to present to those at the ministerial and decision-making level. Gordon T. Geballe

F&ES 807a/LAW 20490/MGT 688a, Corporate Environmental Management and Strategy 3 credits. This survey course focuses on understanding how adroit environmental management and strategy can enhance business opportunities; reduce risk, including resource dependency; promote cooperation; and decrease environmental impact. The course combines lectures, case studies, and class discussions and debates on management theory and tools, legal and regulatory frameworks shaping the business-environment interface, and the evolving requirements for business success (including how to deal with diverse stakeholders, manage in a world of transparency, and address rising expectations related to corporate responsibility). Marian R. Chertow, Daniel C. Esty

[F&ES 808b/LAW 21107/REL 926b, Law, Environment, and Religion: A Communion of Subjects 2–3 credits. Thomas Berry once wrote, “The universe is a communion of subjects, not a collection of objects.” One might also insist that the university is a communion of subjects, not a collection of disciplines. Perhaps no subject better illustrates this point than the environment, for to understand and appreciate the environment requires expertise from multiple intellectual traditions, including history, religion, philosophy, anthropology, aesthetics, economics, political science, and legal studies. This course focuses on the scholarship and practice of leading figures working at the intersection of law, environment, and religion, who will be brought to campus to participate in a discussion series that forms the core of the course. In preparation for these visits, teams of students are assigned to study deeply the writing and actions of a designated speaker. Class sessions during this preparatory phase resemble a traditional graduate seminar, with readings and discussion designed to stimulate engagement with the most challenging and vital questions facing the “communion” of law, environment, and religion. During the core phase of the course, speakers interact with students in multiple ways. The central activity is an in-depth interview led by members of the student team. Other students conduct a podcast interview with the speaker at Yale’s audio recording studio; these podcast interviews, which are intended to engage speakers in a more personal conversation about their life history, values, and worldviews, will be posted on Yale’s iTunes University site. One of the conceits of the academy is often that such subjective elements have little bearing on one’s intellectual work. As a result, too little attention is paid within the university to the role of family, community, religion, and other critical biographical factors in shaping one’s ideas. Enrollment limited to twenty-four. Douglas A. Kysar, John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker]

F&ES 815b, Governing through Markets: The Potential and Pitfalls of Private Governance and CSR in the Global Era 3 credits. This seminar assesses the proliferation of policy innovations aimed at promoting and encouraging “corporate social responsibility” (CSR). We define CSR broadly to include the diverse range of self- and civil regulation, voluntary instruments, private authority, and nonstate market-driven (NSMD) initiatives that have emerged in the past fifteen years to engage firms directly, rather than working through traditional governmental process. Examples include firm-level initiatives, industry codes, product codes, third-party certification, ethical brands and labels, and “clean” investment funds. The course reviews the growing literature on these phenomena that now exists within political science, management, economics, sociology, environmental studies, and law. Our aim is to reflect on the broad array of scholarship on emergence and institutionalization of CSR innovations questions. While the class is interested in assessing the strategic advantage that CSR might bring firms, our emphasis is on whether, and how, CSR initiatives might address enduring policy problems where traditional governmental approaches have been ineffective. The course is organized into four components. First, we review and assess the different types of CSR or “private” policy instruments vying for firm-level support and distinguish them from traditional governmental mechanisms. Second, we discuss what is meant by “effectiveness” and the different ways of measuring success. Third, we assess the assumptions behind different theoretical frameworks about what types of CSR innovations firms are more likely to support, if any, and why. Fourth, we turn to empirical evidence to assess existing theories of support, and what this means for understanding support and effectiveness of CSR. This section draws on a variety of empirical methods including guest speakers from the world of CSR, analysis of large-N analyses on support, as well as detailed historical and comparative case studies. Benjamin W. Cashore

F&ES 817a, Urban, Suburban, and Regional Planning Practice 3 credits. This course explores the challenges and opportunities faced by America’s suburban communities and urban centers as they work to become more sustainable and livable. The form of our cities and towns dictates our ability to meet the nation’s housing demand and grow our employment while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, improving the environment, and enhancing quality of life. Planners play a key role in understanding trends, crafting policy solutions, and generating support for action through stakeholder engagement. Land use plans and regulations, private development, and public infrastructure shape our communities and determine where and how we use land. While most land use decision making is local, the majority of the challenges and opportunities we face cross political boundaries. New regional policies and partnerships, coupled with consensus-building across diverse constituencies, will be necessary to realize a new way to build our communities for the twenty-first century. This course explores the dynamic trends facing the United States and its communities and the evolution in planning practice that is occurring at the local and regional scale to address them. This course is part of the concentration in land use and planning, a subset of classes under the specialization in sustainable land management. This subset is for students interested in the interface of environmental issues with land use, planning, and development. The other courses in the subset are F&ES 820 and 835. David Kooris

F&ES 819b, Strategies for Land Conservation 3 credits (or audit). This is a professional seminar on private land conservation strategies and techniques, with particular emphasis on the legal, financial, and management tools used in the United States. The seminar is built around presentations by guest speakers from land conservation organizations. Speakers are assigned topics across the land conservation spectrum, from identification of target sites, through the acquisition process, to ongoing stewardship of the land after the deal is done. The tools used to protect land are discussed, including the basics of real estate law, conservation finance, and project/organizational management. Students are required to undertake a clinical project with a local land conservation organization. Enrollment limited to twenty-five; preference to second-year students if limit reached. Bradford S. Gentry

F&ES 820b, Land Use Law and Environmental Planning 3 credits. This course explores the regulation by local governments of land uses in urban, rural, and suburban areas and the effect of development on the natural environment. The course helps students understand, in a practical way, how the environment can be protected through effective regulation at the local level. It introduces students to federal, state, regional, and local laws and programs that affect watershed protection and to the laws that delegate to local governments primary responsibility for decision making in the land use field. Theories of federalism, regionalism, states’ rights, and localism are studied, as are the cases that provide a foundation in regulatory takings and the legitimate scope of land use regulation. The history of the delegation of planning and land use authority to local governments is traced, leading to an examination of local land use practices particularly as they relate to controlling development in and around watershed areas as well as regulatory response to sea-level rise and climate change. Students engage in empirical research working to identify, catalogue, and evaluate innovative local laws that successfully protect environmental functions and natural resources, and the manner in which towns, particularly on the coast, incorporate climate change into their planning and regulations. Nearby watersheds are used as a context for the students’ understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of local planning and regulation. Attention is paid, in detail, to how the development of the land adversely affects natural resources and how these impacts can be mitigated through local planning and subsequent adoption of environmental regulations and regulations designed to promote sustainable development in a climate-changing world. The course includes examination of the state and local response to climate change, sea-level rise, growth management, alternatives to Euclidean zoning, low-impact development, brownfields redevelopment, energy conservation, and innovative land use strategies. Marjorie Shansky

F&ES 821b, Private Investment and the Environment: Legal Foundations and Tools 3 credits. As environmental problems become harder to regulate and public funds available for environmental protection decline, more people are looking to private investment as a tool for helping to improve environmental performance. This course explores the legal aspects of these initiatives, both opportunities and limits. It starts with an analysis of the goals of private investors—as a way to target efforts to change their decisions. It then moves to a review of the legal frameworks within which investors operate (property and tax law), as well as the legal tools that investors use to order their activities (contract law) and that governments use to address market failures (liability, regulation, information, and market mechanisms). The course concludes by examining efforts to use combinations of these legal tools to expand private investment in environmentally superior goods, services, and operations. Students are asked to choose an issue about which they care as the focus for their class deliverables. Faculty

F&ES 823a/LAW 20297, Regulation of Energy Extraction 2 or 3 credits. This comparative risk course explores the troubled intersection between energy and environmental policies. We consider a diverse range of regulatory approaches to minimize adverse environmental effects of various forms of energy development. These include emerging issues regarding hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) in the United States and European Union; regulation of off-shore drilling and lessons from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill; liability for natural resources and other damages from oil spills under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA90); the Fukushima, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl nuclear accidents; applicability of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to oil and coal leases on federal lands; the Endangered Species Act; visual pollution and other issues relating to wind farms; coal mine disasters; mountaintop mining and the Mine Safety Act; and tailings piles and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA). The class concludes by considering how concerns about climate change may affect the future of energy development. No more than three absences are permitted. No prerequisites. Supervised Analytic Writing or Substantial Paper credit is available for Law School students. Self-scheduled examination or paper option. E.D. Elliott

F&ES 824a/LAW 20348, Environmental Law and Policy 3 credits. This course is an introductory survey of environmental common law and the major federal environmental statutes, including the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and hazardous waste and toxic substance laws. It explores foundational issues of statutory and regulatory analysis, ethics, politics, and economics in these various legal contexts. The course also considers various themes of environmental problems, including scientific uncertainty, risk, and risk perception. Given the breadth of the environmental law field, the course focuses on analyzing regulatory structure (i.e., the variety of existing and potential regulatory mechanisms for protecting and regulating usage of the environment) rather than either a superficial overview of every possible environmental topic or comprehensive analysis of only a few environmental statutes. The course also integrates a skills component that explores issues in statutory interpretation, legal ethics, federalism, and standing through several hypothetical problems as practiced from the perspective of environmental groups, government agencies, and regulated entity clients. Scheduled examination. Alejandro E. Camacho

F&ES 825b, International Environmental Law 3 credits. An introduction to public international law that both governs the global commons—atmosphere, climate, oceans, and stratospheric ozone layer—and guides the national obligations for ensuring transnational public health, advancing sustainable development, and managing Earth’s shared resources: sources of energy and renewable stocks of plants and animals, biodiversity, and ecosystems services. The course explores how environmental law builds upon general principles of international law; the evolving norms of humanitarian law, human rights, environmental rights, and the rights of nature; and the substantive and procedural treaty obligations of nations. The principal multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) are studied, with attention to how states enact environmental law regimes to implement the MEAs. Decision-making procedures of United Nations agencies and other international and regional bodies are critically examined. Robert Verchick

F&ES 826a, Foundations of Natural Resource Policy and Management 3 credits. This course offers an explicit interdisciplinary (integrative) framework that is genuinely effective in practical problem solving. This unique skill set overcomes the routine ways of thinking and solving conservation problems common to many NGOs and government organizations by explicitly developing more rigorous and effective critical-thinking, observation, and management skills. By simultaneously addressing rational, political, and practical aspects of real-world problem solving, the course helps students gain skills, understand, and offer solutions to the policy problems of managing natural resources. The approach we use requires several things of students (or any problem solvers): that they be contextual in terms of social and decision-making processes; that they use multiple methods and epistemologies from any field that helps in understanding problems; that they strive to be both procedurally and substantively rational in their work; and, finally, that they be clear about their own standpoint relative to the problems at hand. The approach used in this course draws on the oldest and most comprehensive part of the modern policy analytic movement—the policy sciences (interdisciplinary method)—which is growing in its applications worldwide today. The course includes a mix of critical thinking, philosophical issues, history, as well as issues that students bring in. Among the topics covered are human rights, scientific management, decision making, community-based approaches, governance, common interest, sustainability, professionalism, and allied thought and literature. In their course work students apply the basic concepts and tools to a problem of their choice, circulating drafts of their papers to other seminar participants and lecturing on and leading discussions of their topics in class sessions. Papers of sufficient quality may be collected in a volume for publication. Active participation, reading, discussion, lectures, guests, and projects make up the course. The seminar supports and complements other courses in the School and at the University. Enrollment limited to sixteen; application required. Susan G. Clark

F&ES 827a/LAW 20054, Animal Law 2 or 3 credits. This course examines the application of the law to nonhuman animals, the rules and regulations that govern their treatment, and the concepts of “animal welfare” and “animal rights.” The course explores the historical and philosophical treatment of animals; discusses how such treatment impacts the way judges, politicians, lawyers, legal scholars, and lay people see, speak about, and use animals; surveys current animal protection laws and regulations, including overlap with such policy issues as food and agriculture, climate change, and biodiversity protection; describes recent political and legal campaigns to reform animal protection laws; examines the concept of “standing” and the problems of litigating on behalf of animals; discusses the current classification of animals as “property” and the impacts of that classification; and debates the merits and limitations of alternative classifications, such as the recognition of “legal rights” for animals. Students write a series of short response papers. An option to produce a longer research paper for Substantial or Supervised Analytic Writing credit is available for Law School students. Enrollment limited to forty. Douglas A. Kysar, Jonathan Lovvorn

F&ES 828b, Comparative Environmental Law in Global Legal Systems 3 credits. This course examines environmental law in the various legal systems of the world—from the common and civil law traditions to socialist law, customary law, and Islamic law. In particular, environmental law and case studies from a number of countries are examined, including Australia, Canada, China, Europe, New Zealand, the United States, Singapore, and the states of Southeast Asia. The objective is to understand the scope and evolution of national environmental law through the patterns of legislative, administrative, and judicial decision making in the various legal regimes. The systems of central/unitary governments are contrasted with those of federal systems. As corporations engage in the same manufacturing activities around the world, it is important that corporate managers and their legal advisers understand how these activities are regulated in the different legal systems. Additionally, as Earth’s natural systems are integrated throughout the biosphere, the effectiveness of one nation’s environmental laws is complemented or undermined by the efficacy of another nation’s comparable laws. Students are examined by a written paper that is a comparative study of some aspect of environmental law, involving at least two jurisdictions. Faculty

[F&ES 829b, International Environmental Policy and Governance 3 credits. The development of international environmental policy and the functioning of global environmental governance. Critical evaluation of theoretical claims in the literature and the reasoning of policy makers. Introduction of analytical and theoretical tools used to assess environmental problems. Case studies emphasize climate, forestry, and fisheries. Benjamin W. Cashore]

F&ES 835a, Seminar on Land Use Planning 1 credit. Land use control exercised by state and local governments determines where development occurs on the American landscape, the preservation of natural resources, the emission of greenhouse gases, the conservation of energy, and the shape and livability of cities and towns. The exercise of legal authority to plan and regulate the development and conservation of privately owned land plays a key role in meeting the needs of the nation’s growing population for housing and nonresidential development, as well as ensuring that critical environmental functions are protected from the adverse impacts of land development. This course explores the multifaceted discipline of land use planning and its associated ecological implications. Numerous land use strategies are discussed that provide practical tools for professionals to create sustainable buildings, neighborhoods, and communities. The focus of this seminar is to expose students to the basics of land use planning in the United States and to serve as an introduction for the F&ES curricular concentration in land use. Guest speakers are professionals involved in sustainable development, land conservation, smart growth, and climate-change management. Classes include discussions on the trajectory for professional careers. Jessica Bacher

F&ES 835Eb, Seminar on Land Use Planning 1 credit. This is an online course. Land use control exercised by state and local governments determines where development occurs on the American landscape, the preservation of natural resources, the emission of greenhouse gases, the conservation of energy, and the shape and livability of cities and towns. The exercise of legal authority to plan and regulate the development and conservation of privately owned land plays a key role in meeting the needs of the nation’s growing population for housing and nonresidential development, as well as ensuring that critical environmental functions are protected from the adverse impacts of land development. This course explores the multifaceted discipline of land use planning and its associated ecological implications. Numerous land use strategies are discussed that provide practical tools for professionals to create sustainable buildings, neighborhoods, and communities. The focus of this seminar is to expose students to the basics of land use planning in the United States and to serve as an introduction for the F&ES curricular concentration in land use. Guest speakers are professionals involved in sustainable development, land conservation, smart growth, and climate-change management. Classes include discussions on the trajectory for professional careers. Jessica Bacher

[F&ES 837b, Seminar on Leadership in Natural Resources and the Environment 3 credits. This seminar explores the qualities, characteristics, and behaviors of leaders in the fields of natural resources, science, and management. Through lectures, guest speakers, and individual and team projects, students analyze the attributes of leadership in individuals and organizations. They examine leaders and organizations and develop skills and techniques for leading and for assessing various organizations’ leadership strengths and weaknesses. The class travels to Washington, D.C., and meets with leaders in the policy, environmental, industry, and information segments. Through this experience, students have the opportunity to assess their own leadership capabilities and identify means to improve them. Enrollment limited to fifteen. Chadwick D. Oliver]

[F&ES 840a/LAW 21754, Climate Change and Clean Energy 3 credits. This course examines the scientific, economic, legal, political, institutional, and historic underpinnings of climate change and the related policy challenge of developing the energy system needed to support a prosperous and sustainable modern society. Particular attention is given to analyzing the existing framework of treaties, law, regulations, and policy—and the incentives they have created—which have done little over the past several decades to change the world’s trajectory with regard to the build-up of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. What would a twenty-first-century policy framework that is designed to deliver a sustainable energy future and a successful response to climate change look like? How would such a framework address issues of equity? How might incentives be structured to engage the business community and deliver the innovation needed in many domains? While designed as a lecture course, class sessions are highly interactive. Self-scheduled examination or paper option. Daniel C. Esty]

[F&ES 843b/AMST 839b/HIST 743b/HSHM 744b, Readings in Environmental History 2 credits. Reading and discussion of key works in environmental history. The course explores major forces shaping human-environment relationships, such as markets, politics, and ecological dynamics, and compares different approaches to writing about social and environmental change. Paul Sabin]

[F&ES 849b, Natural Resource Policy Practicum 3 credits. This practicum provides opportunities for students to participate in the analysis and development of current issues/policies affecting natural resources in the United States and to learn about contemporary issues affecting natural resources and the environment. Students are organized into teams and assigned a number of current policy issues for analysis and discussion. The identified issues originate from discussions with staff of national environmental organizations, Congressional offices, and federal natural resource agencies that serve as “clients” for the purposes of this practicum. Students are required to communicate directly with the organizations and individuals seeking policy analysis assistance, to conduct research and interdisciplinary analysis of the subject, to prepare a report and recommendations for the identified client, and to brief the client on the product of their analysis. Each team is responsible for a minimum of two policy analysis projects during the term. Following an initial organizational meeting, student teams meet with the instructor once a week to provide updates on projects and to discuss current national and international issues and concerns affecting natural resources and the environment. James R. Lyons]

F&ES 850b, International Organizations and Conferences 3 credits. This course focuses on an international environmental conference or symposium and the organization that sponsors the event. Both theoretical and clinical approaches are used. The course studies the mission of the organization and the role of the conference. Students prepare individual and group papers suitable for presentation at the conference. Every attempt is made to have the students participate in the conference, even if it occurs in the next term, but attendance is not guaranteed. The class has studied and participated in the 5th World Parks Congress, Durban, South Africa, 2003; the World Conservation Congress in Bangkok, Thailand, 2004, and in Barcelona, Spain, 2008; and the UNEP Council Meeting, Nairobi, Kenya, 2005. Since 2009, students have participated in the climate COP. This course is co-taught with an advanced doctoral student or visiting faculty member who brings knowledge of the specific organization and subject matter being studied. Enrollment limited to sixteen. Gordon T. Geballe

F&ES 851b, Environmental Diplomacy Practicum 3 credits. This course aims to provide experiential learning of how and why states at the United Nations make decisions and set standards for managing environmental matters and natural resources issues. The course also addresses what factors and circumstances may affect the result and implementation. Students participate in class discussions, guest lectures, and meetings and dialogues with diplomats and officials of UN agencies and civil society. This process of learning enables students to develop a better understanding and realistic assessment of UN efforts to address climate change, geo-engineering, biodiversity, ocean resources, ozone depletion, gender equality, and economic development. Faculty

[F&ES 855a, Climate Change Mitigation in Urban Areas 3 credits. This class provides an in-depth assessment of the relationships between urbanization and climate change, and the central ways in which urban areas, cities, and other human settlements can mitigate climate change. The course explores two major themes: (1) the ways in which cities and urban areas contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change; and (2) the ways in which urban areas can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Class topics parallel the IPCC 5th Assessment Report, Chapter 12, Human Settlements, Infrastructure, and Spatial Planning, and include spatial form and energy use, land use planning for climate mitigation, urban metabolism, and local climate action plans. The class format is reading-, writing-, and discussion-intensive. Students are taught how to synthesize scientific literature, write policy memos, and develop effective oral presentations on the science of climate change mitigation in urban areas. Enrollment limited to sixteen. Karen Seto]

F&ES 859b/LAW 21182, Natural Resources Law 3 credits. Managing natural resources is complicated and contentious. Today’s economy relies on oil and gas, but tapping those resources can scar landscapes and spoil tourism. Dredging a coastal marsh might free barge traffic, but might also sink bird habitat and erode natural flood barriers. Everyone loves a sunlit forest, but we need wood too. Trade-offs like these are everywhere. This course examines the ways that law allocates and manages many of our most important natural resources, including public lands, biodiversity, wetlands, and offshore oil. Readings take us to a variety of landscapes, from the Mojave Desert to the Rocky Mountains to Cajun swamps to Walden Pond. We examine constitutional dilemmas and the pivotal role played by administrative law. While the focus is on federal law (the National Environmental Policy Act, the National Forest Management Act, the Endangered Species Act, and more), the course also considers some aspects of state law, including doctrines of public trust. Throughout, we keep an eye on historical, ethical, and economic considerations too—and, of course, climate change. Classes include a few lectures, lots of discussion, and a few structured simulations. Self-scheduled examination. Robert Verchick

[F&ES 862b/HPM 601b/LAW 21141/PSYC 601b, The Science of Science Communication 2 credits. The simple dissemination of valid scientific knowledge does not guarantee it will be recognized by non-experts to whom it is of consequence. The science of science communication is an emerging, multidisciplinary field that investigates the processes that enable ordinary citizens to form beliefs consistent with the best available scientific evidence, the conditions that impede the formation of such beliefs, and the strategies that can be employed to avoid or ameliorate such conditions. This course surveys, and makes a modest attempt to systematize, the growing body of work in this area. Special attention is paid to identifying the distinctive communication dynamics of the diverse contexts in which non-experts engage scientific information, including electoral politics, governmental policy making, and personal health decision making. Paper required. Permission of the instructor required. Dan Kahan]

[F&ES 866b/LAW 21566, The Law of Climate Change 3 credits. This course explores legal and policy developments pertaining to climate change and the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Approaches considered range in scale (state, regional, national, international), temporal scope (incremental measures, multi-decade emissions goals, constitutional amendments), policy orientation (voluntary initiatives, disclosures rules, subsidization, tort litigation, command-and-control regulation, cap-and-trade schemes, emissions taxes), regulatory target (industry and manufacturing, commercial and retail firms, financial and insurance companies, consumers and workers), and regulatory objective (stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations, reduction of emissions levels or intensity, energy security, optimal balancing of costs and benefits, adaption to unavoidable impacts). Although course readings and discussion focus on existing and actual proposed legal responses to climate change, the overarching aim of the course is to anticipate how the climate change conundrum will affect our laws and our lives in the long run. No prerequisites. Self-scheduled examination or paper option. Douglas A. Kysar]

F&ES 874a/MGT 862a, Introduction to Responsible Business: Oil and Wine 1.5 credits. What is “sustainable” or “responsible” business? This is an introductory course in the principles and tools of responsible business (including the concepts of sustainability, corporate responsibility, corporate social responsibility, and corporate citizenship). We first use the oil sector to introduce the key aspects of corporate responsibility (CR): strategy, management systems, governance structures, stakeholder engagement, metrics, and assurance. Here we define CR to include environmental as well as social and socioeconomic considerations. We then use the wine sector to explore the gray areas of responsible business, broadening the perception of CR toward sustainability by exploring the interaction between the environment and human society—including culture, religion, and the social utility of business. We take a deeper look at the value chain (growing grapes, producing wine, responsible consumption) to test the boundary of CR (where does a company’s responsibility to environment and society begin and end?). Finally, we explore the scope of social and environmental impacts from the micro-scale (e.g., terroir impacts) to the global scale (e.g., climate change and socioeconomic megatrends). Although we use the oil and wine sectors to explore these concepts, the learning from this course is applicable to any corporate sustainability endeavor as well as to more applied sustainability courses. Todd Cort

F&ES 875Ea/MGMT 955a, Urban Resilience: Complexity, Collaborative Structures, and Leadership Challenges 3 credits. A Small Network Online Course (SNOC) through the Global Network for Advanced Management (GNAM). The world continues to urbanize. In the one hundred years since 1913, the proportion of the world’s population that lives in cities grew fivefold from 10 to 50 percent, and estimates suggest that 75 percent of the world’s population will do so in 2050. Though history reveals that urbanization has always been an accelerator of growth and development, it also poses profound challenges for residents, communities, corporations, cities, regions, and countries. A 2015 McKinsey report succinctly notes: “Cities are where most of the world’s population live, work, and play, and they are important to everyone else, too. They are the world’s economic engine, consuming the majority of global power and resources, while generating 80 percent of GDP and 70 percent of greenhouse-gas emissions. Making cities great is the critical infrastructure challenge of this century.” This online course is a collaborative offering to students across the GNAM network schools. It brings together the 100 Resilient Cities (100RC) network, the Rockefeller Foundation, schools across the GNAM (with faculty from Yale, as well as the University of British Columbia, EGADE Business School, Ghana Business School, and the Indian Institute of Management-Bangalore), and practitioners from business, government, and civil society to engage with the topic of urban resilience. For the purposes of this course, we draw on the view of urban resilience articulated by 100RC as the ability of individuals, communities, businesses, institutions, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and thrive in response to the acute shocks and chronic stresses they may experience. The purposes of the course are to help students: (1) articulate resilience challenges and opportunities facing global cities; (2) describe the holistic and integrated nature of resiliency and its key drivers; and (3) work in virtual global teams to design collaborative approaches to addressing urban resilience challenges involving business, government, and civil society. F&ES faculty host: Bradford S. Gentry

Social and Political Ecology

F&ES 606a, Modeling a Dynamic World 3 credits. The human and natural systems of the world we live in are dynamic, adaptive, and constantly interacting. Many of us are engaged in understanding and finding solutions to complex challenges—such as eradicating chronic poverty, stopping resources degradation, improving institutional governance, or adaptating to global climate change—that very often arise due to interactions between these systems. The dynamic and complex adaptive nature of such challenges necessitates newer theories, methods, and tools that can conduct interdisciplinary analysis beyond traditional disciplinary approaches. Systems approach and thinking have moved from being an “in vogue” concept on the periphery to being fundamental to analysis in a variety of disciplines. At the same time, modeling and simulation, while used in a variety of engineering and management related disciplines, have gained significant ground in both complexity and sustainability science. This course, while introducing theory associated with systems and sustainability science, is focused on providing hands-on fundamentals on modeling and simulation techniques originating in system dynamics. It engages in such questions as: What is a system? What is systems thinking? Why do we need systems thinking for sustainability science? What are models? How do we develop models? What is simulation? Why do we need modeling and simulation? What platforms, tools, and techniques can we learn to conduct modeling and simulation-based analysis? Alark Saxena

F&ES 614b, Environmental Governance and Justice Practicum: Case Studies in a Changing Climate 3 credits. The course covers how the practical and theoretical methods used in environmental policy and planning can assist city, county, and state governments address the immediate and long-term sustainability challenges posed by global and local environmental change (such as climate change). Particular attention is focused on social institutional practices, and how race, class, and gender impact environmental participation and justice in the distribution of natural resources, such as water and air. Students examine social theories of “nature,” as well as a range of policy responses to address environmental inequities. An emphasis is placed on disadvantaged communities in the United States. Urban and sociological theories are complemented by real-world environmental controversies that require group collaboration to produce in-class presentations, role-playing negotiation case simulations, and the completion of client policy memos with regional and local policy makers that engage students critically with the course material. Michael A. Mendez

F&ES 628a, Understanding and Building Resistance in Developing Countries 3 credits. Resilience in the past decade has moved from a peripheral ecological idea to a central concept in major world debates: e.g., sustainable development goals, climate change adaptation, resilient infrastructure and ecosystems. What makes a person or a community resilient to the impacts of climate change? How has the resilience approach been operationalized in the fields of sustainability, disaster risk reduction, and climate change adaptation? What are the limitations and critiques of resilience thinking, and how might this concept evolve in the future? As development and government agencies increasingly adopt the resilience approach, students interested in pursuing careers across a range of business, environmental, and development sectors will increasingly find themselves faced with these questions. This course prepares students to understand the theory of resilience and operationalize it in a given context. Alark Saxena

[F&ES 738Eb, Himalayan Diversities: Environment, Livelihood, and Culture 3 credits. An online introductory course that showcases Himalayan diversities from the perspective of three broad themes: environment, livelihood, and culture. The course is geared toward students and scholars interested in developing a broad understanding of the Himalayan region. Using subject experts in the region, the course provides insights on biological, cultural, and livelihood diversity within the vast region of the Eastern, Central, and Western Himalayas. It further engages the students to look at the impact of climate change in the region and what a sustainable future can look like for the Himalayas. The course also provides supplementary material for students who are interested in developing a more nuanced understanding of the region and provides direction to where they can find more information. Students gain a well-rounded understanding of the importance of Himalayan issues, current challenges, and how we can create long-term sustainability in the region. Alark Saxena]

F&ES 760b, Conservation in Practice: An International Perspective 3 credits. This seminar focuses on the practice of wildlife and wildlands conservation, examining key topics from the dual perspectives of academic literature and actual field experiences; bringing together interdisciplinary thinking; and drawing on examples from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the United States. The thematic outline of the seminar is organized around three fundamental questions in nature conservation: What are we trying to save—and why? How is this being done—and how has it changed over time? What lessons are we learning—and what overarching issues remain problematic? Specific topics include how different players define and value wildness; selection and prioritization of conservation targets; comparisons of various species and landscape conservation approaches; and governance and decision making in conservation, including ties between conservation and development and community-based conservation. During the course of the term, six to eight guest conservation practitioners join the seminar, bringing tangible examples of current practice into the classroom via presentations and discussions. Student participation and leadership are key, as the seminar is discussion-based, centers on the sharing of ideas and experiences, demands challenging thinking, and is frequently led by students. Limited enrollment. Evaluation is based on participation, comments on assigned readings, and a final paper. Amy Vedder, A. William Weber

[F&ES 763b, Translating the Science of Wildlife Conservation into Practice 2 credits (successful completion of all discussion-based work), 3 credits (final paper). Focusing on the application of wildlife science to ongoing conservation initiatives, this advanced seminar examines selected, in-depth topics on wildlife conservation across the globe. It draws on students’ strong background in ecology (including concurrent registration in F&ES 744) and prior examination of international conservation issues. Topics include determination of wildlife objectives, complications of temporal and geographical scales, wildlife in the context of culture, and the economics and financing of wildlife conservation. Each seminar session includes examination of case studies, and each general topic includes structured debate and/or role-playing to enhance the emphasis on applied conservation. Student participation and leadership are key, as sessions are discussion-based, center on the sharing of ideas and experiences, demand challenging current thinking, and are frequently student-led. Prerequisite: F&ES 760. Enrollment limited to ten. Amy Vedder]

F&ES 764a, The North American West as an Environmental, Cultural, and Political Case Study 3 credits. The social and environmental context of the North American West provides fertile ground to examine important issues pertaining to culture, politics, environmental justice, social movements, and institutional structures. This course equips students to think critically and imaginatively about the social aspects of natural landscapes and the communities who inhabit them. This is not a history course, but it does examine stability and change across time. The course draws on empirical cases dealing with a range of interrelated issues, including economic change, environmental values, energy and water conflicts, native experiences, religion, American mythologies, gender, race, and the culture of individualism. Engaging with important theories, debates, and scholarly work around these exciting cultural and political issues is the primary goal of this course. Because of the importance of engaging these issues on the ground in real-life situations, the course includes a short (and optional) field trip during the October break. Justin Farrell

F&ES 767b, Tools for Conservation Project Design and Management 3 credits. As wildlife and wildland conservation programs have multiplied and grown in size, conservation organizations have sought methods to improve strategic project planning, assessment of progress, cross-project comparison, learning of lessons, and transparency for donors. To address these challenges, major nonprofit organizations have collaboratively designed a set of decision-support tools for planning field projects and programs and for monitoring their progress, summarized in the “Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation” (cmp-openstandards.org). Use of these tools has allowed organizations to more clearly articulate strategies, define priority actions, critically assess success, manage adaptively, and derive lessons—all of which help to improve effectiveness and respond to donor interests. Students in this course explore a mutually reinforcing suite of these project tools: their underlying principles are introduced, students practice the techniques, and current case studies from field conservation are examined to explore tool utility. Students synthesize use of these design tools in a final project or program proposal focused on a single case study of their choice. The suite of decision-support tools covered includes conceptual models for project design, situational and stakeholder assessments, threats and opportunities analysis, conservation target identification (particularly landscape species selection), and monitoring frameworks. Students gain experience in design of projects and their monitoring, as well as familiarity with budgeting. Enrollment limited to twelve. Amy Vedder, A. William Weber

F&ES 772a, Social Justice in the Sustainable Food System 3 credits. This course explores social justice dimensions of today’s globalized food system and considers sustainability in terms of social, in addition to environmental, indicators. We develop an understanding of the food system that includes farmers and agroecological systems; farm and industry workers; business owners and policy makers; as well as all who consume food. Based on this understanding, we examine how phenomena such as racism, gender discrimination, structural violence, and neoliberalization surface within the food system both in the United States and globally, drawing examples from agriculture, labor, public health, international governance bodies, and NGOs. We examine how contemporary policy debates surrounding global issues such as immigration and climate change affect social and environmental justice in the food system at multiple scales. We discuss conceptual frameworks—including food justice and food sovereignty—that farmers, activists, critical food scholars, humanitarian agencies, and policy makers are using to create food systems that are both sustainable and just. Throughout the term we explore our own position(s) as university-based stakeholders in the food system. The course includes guest speakers, and students are encouraged to integrate aspects of their own academic and/or scholar-activist projects into one or more course assignments. Kristin Reynolds

F&ES 774a/NELC 774a, Agriculture: Origins, Evolution, Crises 3 credits. Analysis of the societal and environmental causes and effects of plant and animal domestication, the intensification of agro-production, and the crises of agro-production: population pressure, land degradation, societal collapses, technological innovation, transformed social relations of production, sustainability, and biodiversity. From the global field, the best-documented eastern and western hemisphere trajectories are selected for analysis. Harvey Weiss

F&ES 783b, Field Course in Cultural Diversity, Environmental Politics, and Social Change 3 credits. This course provides students with the opportunity to engage environmental politics and social change through experiential field-based learning and immersive research. Using a case-study approach, the course emphasizes active learning and independent research about broad theoretical issues pertaining to culture, politics, environmental justice, values, social movements, and institutional structures. The central component of the course is a major field trip to Western Wyoming, which is an especially salient context for examining these theoretical issues through the lens of water scarcity, population growth, income inequality, energy development, local knowledge, and indigenous perspectives. The course meets throughout the term for instruction and discussion in preparation for the spring break trip, and it concludes with sessions where students present their research. Due to high demand, the course requires a short application. Justin Farrell

F&ES 783Ea/REL 903Ha, Introduction to Religions and Ecology 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course introduces the newly emerging field of religion and ecology and traces its development over the past several decades. It explores human relations to the natural world as differentiated in religious and cultural traditions. In particular, it investigates the symbolic and lived expressions of these interconnections in diverse religious texts, ethics, and practices. In addition, the course draws on the scientific field of ecology for an understanding of the dynamic processes of Earth’s ecosystems. The course explores parallel developments in human-Earth relations defined as religious ecologies. Similarly, it identifies narratives that orient humans to the cosmos, namely, religious cosmologies. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

[F&ES 784Ea, Western Religions and Ecology 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course explores views of nature in the Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Students examine historical examples of human-Earth interactions expressed in scriptures, traditions, and ritual practices. In particular, they explore the meaning of “dominion” in Judaism, “stewardship” in Christianity, and “trusteeship” in Islam. Having retrieved these examples, they evaluate them in light of present environmental insights and challenges. Students also explore contemporary examples of how these religions are engaged in environmental projects within their different communities. In these ways students come to reflect upon values inherent in these religions that have helped to shape and inform cultural interactions with nature in the West. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. Prerequisite: F&ES 783E. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker]

[F&ES 785Eb/REL 917Hb, East Asian Religions and Ecology 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course explores views of nature in the East Asian religions of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism. Students examine historical examples of human-Earth interactions expressed in scriptures, traditions, and ritual practices. In particular, they explore the meaning of “harmony” in Confucianism, “the Way” in Daoism, and “interdependence” in Buddhism. Having retrieved these examples, they evaluate them in light of present environmental insights and challenges. Students also explore contemporary examples of how these religions are engaged in environmental projects within their different communities. In these ways students come to reflect upon values inherent in these religions that have helped to shape and inform cultural interactions with nature in East Asia. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. Prerequisite: F&ES 783E. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker]

F&ES 786Ea/REL 918Ha, Native American Religions and Ecology 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course explores a diversity of Native American peoples and examines their ecological interactions with place, biodiversity, and celestial bodies as religious realities. The dynamic interactions of First Nations’ cultures and bioregions provide a lens for understanding lifeways, namely, a weave of thought and practice in traditional Native American life. Through symbolic languages, subsistence practices, and traditional rituals, lifeways give expression to living cosmologies, namely, communal life lived in relation to a sacred universe. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

F&ES 787E/REL 911Ha, Thomas Berry: Life and Thought 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course investigates the life and thought of Thomas Berry in relation to the field of religion and ecology as well as the Journey of the Universe project. Berry (1914–2009) was a historian of religions and a significant voice awakening religious sensibilities to the environmental crisis. He is particularly well known for articulating a “Universe Story” that explores the world-changing implication of evolutionary sciences. As an overview this course draws on his books, articles, and recorded lectures to examine such ideas as the Universe Story, the Great Work, and the Ecozoic era. In addition, the course explores his studies in world religions including Buddhism, Confucianism, and indigenous traditions. Finally the course highlights his challenge to Christianity to articulate theologies of not only divine-human relations, but also human-Earth relations. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

F&ES 789E/REL 912Ha, Journey of the Universe 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course draws on the resources created in the Journey of the Universe project—a film, a book, and a series of twenty interviews with scientists and environmentalists. Journey of the Universe weaves together the discoveries of evolutionary science with cosmological understandings found in the religious traditions of the world. The authors explore cosmic evolution as a creative process based on connection, interdependence, and emergence. The Journey project also presents an opportunity to investigate the daunting ecological and social challenges of our times. This course examines a range of dynamic interactions and interdependencies in the emergence of galaxies, Earth, life, and human communities. It brings the sciences and humanities into dialogue to explore the ways in which we understand evolutionary processes and the implications for humans and our ecological future. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker

[F&ES 792Eb/REL 928Hb, South Asian Religions and Ecology 2 credits. This six-week hybrid course introduces the South Asian religious traditions of Hinduism and Buddhism and, briefly, Jainism, in relation to the emerging field of religion and ecology. This overview course identifies developments in the traditions that highlight their ecological implications in the contemporary period. In particular, it relates religious concepts, textual analysis, ritual activities, and institutional formations to engaged, on-the-ground environmental projects. It investigates the symbolic and lived expressions in religious ethics and practices that can be defined as religious ecologies. Similarly, it identifies narratives in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism that orient humans to the cosmos, namely, religious cosmologies. This interrelationship of narratives and religious environmentalism provides pathways into the study of religion and ecology. This is an online hybrid course; no shopping period. John Grim, Mary Evelyn Tucker]

F&ES 793b/ANTH 773b/ARCG 773b/NELC 588b, Abrupt Climate Change and Societal Collapse 3 credits. Collapse documented in the archaeological and early historical records of the Old and New Worlds, including Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, the Andes, and Europe. Analysis of politicoeconomic vulnerabilities, resiliencies, and adaptations in the face of abrupt climate change, anthropogenic environmental degradation, resource depletion, “barbarian” incursions, or class conflict. Harvey Weiss

F&ES 831b, Society and Natural Resources 1–3 credits. This research seminar explores the relationship between society and natural resources in a genuinely interdisciplinary manner. This session focuses on the foundations (philosophic, methodological, and pragmatic) of social and integrative/interdisciplinary sciences/approaches to understanding and policy. We demonstrate a major case application. Although the specific topic of the seminar varies from year to year, the consistent underlying theme is an examination of how societies organize themselves, use natural resources, and affect their environment. In past years, the seminar focused on energy and the environment, interdisciplinary problem solving, and environmental psychology and sociology. We focus on leadership (the lead and leader’s relationships), too. Guests and students make presentations and participate in discussions each week. Readings, active participation, and student papers are required. The seminar overall looks at people seeking values using natural resources through institutions. This relationship (people, values, natural resources, and institutions) has been extensively written about and discussed in diverse fields. A few years ago, the seminar examined the relationship of human dignity as a universal value goal, professionalism and practice, and sustainability as an applied notion. Other versions of the seminar have looked at conceptual (theoretical) models about society and natural resources from policy sciences, social ecology, political ecology, and other knowledge areas. Still other seminars focused on “Bridging Local and Professional Knowledge in Environmental Sustainability” and “War and the Environment.” Topic for this year’s seminar to be determined. Susan G. Clark

F&ES 836a/ANTH 541a/HIST 965a/PLSC 779a, Agrarian Societies: Culture, Society, History, and Development 3 credits. An interdisciplinary examination of agrarian societies, contemporary and historical, Western and non-Western. Major analytical perspectives from anthropology, economics, history, political science, and environmental studies are used to develop a meaning-centered and historically grounded account of the transformation of rural society. Four hours lecture plus discussion sections. Peter Perdue, James C. Scott, Kalyanakrishnan Sivaramakrishnan

F&ES 839a/ANTH 597a, Social Science of Conservation and Development 3 credits. This course is designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the social aspects involved in implementing conservation and sustainable development projects. Social science makes two contributions to the practice of conservation and development. First, it provides ways of thinking about, researching, and working with social groupings—including rural households and communities, but also development and conservation institutions, states, and NGOs. This aspect includes relations between groups at all these levels, and especially the role of politics and power in these relations. Second, social science tackles the analysis of the knowledge systems that implicitly shape conservation and development policy and impinge on practice. The emphasis throughout is on how these things shape the practice of sustainable development and conservation. Case studies used in the course have been balanced as much as possible between Southeast Asia, South Asia, Africa, and Latin America; most are rural and Third World. The course includes readings from all noneconomic social sciences. The goal is to stimulate students to apply informed and critical thinking (which means not criticizing others, but questioning our own underlying assumptions) to whatever roles they may come to play in conservation and sustainable development, in order to move toward more environmentally and socially sustainable projects and policies. The course is also designed to help students shape future research by learning to ask questions that build on, but are unanswered by, the social science theory of conservation and development. No prerequisites. This is a requirement for the combined F&ES/Anthropology doctoral degree program and a prerequisite for some advanced F&ES courses. Open to advanced undergraduates. Three hours lecture/seminar. Carol Carpenter

F&ES 846b, Perspectives on Environmental Injustices 3 credits. In this seminar we explore domestic and global environmental issues from a perspective that foregrounds questions of social justice. This course is based on three fundamental premises: (1) all individuals and communities, regardless of their social or economic conditions, have the right to a clean and healthy environment; (2) there is a connection between environmental exploitation, human exploitation, and social justice; and (3) many environmental and social injustices are rooted in larger structural issues in society that must be understood. With these premises as a starting point, we turn to more difficult questions such as, Why and through what political, social, and economic processes are some people denied this basic right to a clean and safe environment? What is the state of scientific evidence surrounding environmental injustice and what are the current scientific challenges in assessing environmental injustices in relationship to human health? What legal frameworks exist within the United States to address environmental injustice? Amity Doolittle, Michelle L. Bell

[F&ES 854b, Institutions and the Environment 3 credits. One of the most critically important questions facing those seeking to promote environmental stewardship of the world’s biosphere is to understand better what types of local, domestic, global, and non-state institutions might best promote meaningful and enduring environmental problem solving. The purpose of this seminar is to review key works in political science and related disciplines on institutions to assess their direct or indirect implications for environmental governance and effectiveness. The course assesses perspectives from rational choice, historical, and sociological institutionalism that have permeated comparative public scholarship; the treatment of institutions with international relations literature; the attention that common property scholars have placed on understanding the development of local institutions; and the emergence and proliferation of private governance institutions. We are curious about understanding the theoretical underpinnings and scholarly debates about how support for such systems occurs. We also assess the various theories against empirical evidence that assess their support and influence ameliorating key resource and environmental problems. Benjamin W. Cashore]

[F&ES 857b, Urbanization, Global Change, and Sustainability 3 credits. The conversion of land surface to urban uses is one of the most profound human impacts on the global biosphere. Urban growth and associated changes in human activities on the land and in the physical attributes of Earth’s surface have profound environmental consequences, including local and regional climate change, loss of wildlife habitat and biodiversity, soil erosion, and a decline in ecosystem services. This seminar examines the interactions and relationships between urbanization and global change at local, regional, and global scales. Topics include urban land-cover change, cities and local climate, urban vulnerability, urban diets and the challenges for agriculture, and urban biodiversity. Karen Seto]

[F&ES 869b/ANTH 572b, Disaster, Degradation, Dystopia: Social Science Approaches to Environmental Perturbation and Change 3 credits. An advanced seminar on the long tradition of social science scholarship on environmental perception, perturbation, and disaster, the relevance of which has been heightened by the current global attention to climate change. Section I, introduction. Section II, central questions and debates in the field: social dimensions of natural disasters; discursive dimensions of environmental degradation; asymmetries between political power and resource wealth; and anthropological approaches to the study of climate and society. Section III, historic and comparative understandings of the environment: the twenty-first-century development of a posthumanist, multispecies ethnography; and then the half-millennium tradition of natural history studies. Section IV, classroom presentation of students’ and teaching fellow’s writings. One class is devoted to student selections of the most influential works in the current literature, and there are two guest lectures by prominent scholars in the field. Prerequisite: F&ES 520/ANTH 581, ANTH 517, or F&ES 839/ANTH 597. Three hours lecture/seminar. Michael R. Dove]

F&ES 873a, Global Environmental History 3 credits. The dynamic relationship between environmental and social forces from the Pleistocene glaciations to the Anthropocene present: Pleistocene extinctions; transitions from hunting to gathering to agriculture; Old World origins of cities, states, and civilization; adaptations and collapses of Old and New World civilizations in the face of climate disasters; the destruction and reconstruction of the New World by the Old. In the foreground of each analysis are the issues of adaptation, resilience, and sustainability: what forced long-term societal changes? Harvey Weiss

F&ES 877b/ANTH 561b, Anthropology of the Global Economy for Conservation and Development 3 credits. This seminar explores topics in the anthropology of the global economy that are relevant to conservation and development policy and practice. Anthropologists are often assumed to focus on micro- or local-level research, and thus to have limited usefulness in the contemporary, global world of conservation and development policy. In fact, however, they have been examining global topics since at least the 1980s, and little current anthropological research is limited to the village level. More importantly, the anthropological perspective on the global economy is unique and important. This course examines the topics that make up this perspective, including using a single commodity to study the global economy, theorizing the transition to capitalism, the moral relation between economy and society, models for thinking about power in the global economy, articulations between rural households and the global economy, rural-urban relations in the global economy; the process of becoming a commodity, the commons debate, credit and debt, contracting and flexible accumulation, globalization and scale, and theorizing REDD. Readings for the course come from the subfields of environmental anthropology, economic anthropology, the anthropology of development, and the anthropology of conservation. This class is a prerequisite for F&ES 965. Though designed for master’s and doctoral students, it is open to advanced undergraduates. Three hours lecture/seminar. Carol Carpenter

F&ES 878a, Climate and Society 3 credits. Seminar on the major traditions of thought—both historic and contemporary—regarding climate, climate change, and society, drawing on the social sciences and anthropology in particular. Section I, introduction. Section II, continuities from past to present: How have differences in climate been used since the classical era to explain differences among people? How does this vary between Western and non-Western intellectual traditions? What role has the ethnographic study of folk knowledge played in this? Section III, impact on society of environmental change: What shape did environmental determinism take in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries? Can historic cases of societal “collapse” be attributed to extreme climatic events? Can such events play a constructive as well as destructive role in the development of a society? Section IV, vulnerability and control: What are the means by which societies attempt to cope with extreme climatic events? How do such events reflect, reveal, and reproduce socioeconomic fault lines? Section V, knowledge and its circulation: How is knowledge of climate and its extremes constituted? How does such knowledge become an object of contestation between central and local authorities, as well as between the global North and South? The main texts, The Anthropology of Climate Change (Dove, ed., 2014, Wiley-Blackwell) and Climate Cultures (Barnes and Dove, eds., 2015, Yale) were written especially for this course. Films and popular media utilized as appropriate. No prerequisites. Graduate students may enroll with the instructor’s permission. Two hours lecture/seminar. Michael R. Dove

[F&ES 882a/ANTH 582a, The Black Box of Implementation: Households, Communities, Gender 3 credits. The implementation of development projects has been described as existing in a “black box”: development and conservation policy (even participatory policy) is often not defined to inform effective implementation (Mosse 2004), and data on actual implementation is rarely incorporated into policy. This course examines the invisibility of implementation, and the common, mistaken assumptions about implementation targets (like households, communities, and gender) that take the place of absent data in policy. The course also makes an effort to use anthropology to shed light into this black box, to allow students to think more critically about the varied and dynamic social field in which project implementation occurs. Political and economic aspects of relations within households and communities, particularly gender relations, are examined in all of their complexity, variation, and dynamism. The real focus of the course, however, is not the contents of the black box, but the political and economic relations between households, communities, and gender, on the one hand, and the world of development and conservation, on the other. How do households and communities respond to the differential opportunities and restrictions that development and conservation introduce? What are the implications of the fact that those responses are often invisible to policy makers? Three hours lecture/seminar. Carol Carpenter]

F&ES 892a/ARCH 4021a, Introduction to Planning and Development 3 credits. This course demonstrates the ways in which financial and political feasibility determine the design of buildings and the character of the built environment. Students propose projects and then adjust them to the conflicting interests of the financial institutions, real estate developers, civic organizations, community groups, public officials, and the widest variety of participants in the planning process. Subjects covered include housing, commercial development, zoning, historic preservation, parks and public open space, suburban subdivisions, planned communities, and comprehensive plans. Alexander Garvin

Health and Environment

F&ES 727a, The Future of Food 3 credits. This seminar explores significant challenges posed by the global food supply to environmental quality and human health. The primary obligation is a research paper, dissertation chapter, master’s project, or senior essay draft. We read critically 150–200 pages per week, and students should be prepared to discuss or present analyses. Challenges examined include fresh vs. processed foods, nutritional sufficiency and excess, radionuclides, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, fertilizers, animal feeds, plastics, flame retardants, flavors, fragrances, ingredient fraud, genetic modification, waste, energy input and yield, locality, processing technologies, packaging, and carbon emissions. Corporate case histories are considered in a number of sessions. Private innovations in the production and management of food are analyzed, including trends in certification and labeling initiatives. Most sessions examine one or several foods. Examples include cow’s milk, human milk, infant formula, grapes, wine, corn, bananas, tomatoes, salmon, cod, tuna, sodas, fruit juice, water, coffee, and olive oil. John P. Wargo

F&ES 736Ea, Environmental Ethics 2 credits; graded pass/fail. Environmental issues are closely tied to ethical considerations such as the impacts on public health, future generations, less industrialized nations, and nonhuman entities. This course is designed to provide a broad overview of topics related to ethics and the environment including perspectives of environmental ethics (e.g., anthropocentrism), environmental justice, environmental economics, and climate change. The intersection of ethics and the environment could be studied from multiple disciplines such as philosophy, history, anthropology, medicine, or environmental science. All perspectives and backgrounds are welcome in this course. The purpose of this class is not to distinguish “right” from “wrong” but to encourage critical thinking and discussion on the ethical consequences of environmental decisions and to provide a better understanding of key topics on ethics and the environment. This course is conducted as a combination in-person/online class over a six-week period in the first part of the term. Michelle L. Bell

F&ES 765b, Technological and Social Innovation in Global Food Systems 1–3 credits. This course examines a range of social and technical innovations aimed at attaining more sustainable agri-food production and consumption patterns. It provides an in-depth exploration of different concepts of food systems and seeks to understand the relationships between these systems’ underlying models, human values, and how they give rise to different aspirations for innovation, intervention, reform, or revolution. The first part of the course introduces different approaches to characterizing food systems, the values that drive these different approaches, and the attempts to find measurable indicators of sustainability of these systems. The remainder of the course features weekly invited guest speakers who discuss their perspectives on strategies for creating sustainable food systems. Speakers have been selected to reflect a wide range of approaches and experience with specific issues and innovations of importance to the global future of food and agriculture. Gordon T. Geballe

F&ES 893b/EHS 511b, Principles of Risk Assessment 3 credits. This course introduces students to the nomenclature, concepts, and basic skills of quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The goal is to provide an understanding necessary to read and critically evaluate QRA. Emphasis is on the intellectual and conceptual basis of risk assessment, particularly its dependence on toxicology and epidemiology, rather than its mathematical constructs and statistical models. Specific cases consider the use of risk assessment for setting occupational exposure limits, establishing community exposure limits, and quantifying the hazards of environmental exposures to chemicals in air and drinking water. Jonathan Borak, Cheryl Fields

F&ES 896b/EHS 503b, Public Health Toxicology 3 credits. This course is designed to serve as a foundation for understanding environmental toxicology. It includes basic principles of toxicology, mechanisms of toxicity and cellular defense, and the fundamental interactions between chemicals and biological systems. Human exposure to foreign chemicals and their adverse effects are considered, as is the importance of federal and state agencies in protecting public health. Through the use of case studies, the course provides insights into prevention of mortality and morbidity resulting from environmental exposure to toxic substances, the fundamentals of risk assessment and regulatory toxicology, and the causes underlying the variability in susceptibility of people to chemicals. Vasilis Vasiliou

F&ES 897b/EHS 508b, Environmental and Occupational Exposure Science 3 credits. This course examines the fundamental and practical aspects of assessing exposures to environmental agents, broadly defined, in the residential, ambient, and workplace environments. The course provides the knowledge and skills to design and conduct exposure assessments, and has a particular focus on applications to environmental epidemiology and risk assessment. Indirect and direct methods of assessing exposures, such as questionnaires, environmental sampling, biological monitoring, and spatial modeling, are reviewed; and case studies and hands-on projects are presented. Nicole C. Deziel

[F&ES 898a/EHS 585a, The Environment and Human Health 3 credits. This course provides an overview of the critical relationships between the environment and human health. The class explores the interaction between health and different parts of the environmental system including air pollution, assessment of environmental exposures, environmental justice, and occupational health. Other topics include case studies of environmental health disasters, links between climate change and health, and integration of scientific evidence on environmental health. Students learn about current key topics in environmental health and how to critique and understand scientific studies. The course incorporates lectures and discussion. Enrollment limited to twenty-five. Michelle L. Bell]

[F&ES 899b, Sustainable Development in Post-Disaster Context: Haiti 3 credits. Sustainable development is studied using the case of Haiti. Haiti suffers from chronic environmental disasters, most notably deforestation that leads to mudslides and therefore crop loss during the rainy season, and acute disasters, for example the earthquake of 2010. F&ES has been asked by L’Hôpital Albert Schweitzer in the Artibonite Valley (north of Port-au-Prince) to provide assistance to projects in villages surrounding the hospital. This course uses lectures, student presentations of scholarly work, project development, and field studies to explore our knowledge of sustainable development and to apply this knowledge. Enrollment limited to sixteen. Gordon T. Geballe]

Industrial Ecology, Environmental Planning, and Technology

F&ES 612b, Waste and Materials Management: Fundamentals and Frontiers 2 or 3 credits. This course introduces and formalizes concepts related to waste and materials management seen from perspectives of operations, policy, and business. Because there is no disposal-free society, learning about waste that remains waste is a key element of the class. Interest in using wastes as resources opens up other questions related to materials management, policy and regulation, and finance and economics. One goal is to examine fundamentals including generation, collection, processing (e.g., by recycling and composting), and landfilling. Key materials such as paper, plastic, industrial waste, and hazardous waste receive individual attention. A second goal is to describe and discuss alternative futures for waste and materials using ideas drawn from industrial ecology and technology. Half of each class session is devoted to structured learning of fundamentals, and the second half brings in frontiers through readings and student-led discussions. Students who wish to engage in and complete a waste and materials research project in conjunction with the research team can sign up for an additional credit. Enrollment limited to twenty. Marian R. Chertow, Reid J. Lifset

F&ES 782a/ARCH 4216a, Globalization Space: International Infrastructure and Extrastatecraft 3 credits. The course researches global infrastructure space as a medium of polity. It considers networks of trade, energy, communication, transportation, spatial products, finance, management, and labor as well as new strains of political opportunity that reside within their spatial disposition. Case studies include free zones and automated ports around the world, satellite urbanism in South Asia, high-speed rail in Japan and the Middle East, agripoles in Southern Spain, fiber optic submarine cable and mobile telephony in East Africa, spatial products of tourism in the DPRK, and the standards and management platforms of ISO. Keller Easterling

F&ES 838b, Life Cycle Analysis 3 credits. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an analytical method that considers systemwide impacts along the entire life cycle of a product, from extraction or harvest of natural resources, through production and consumption, to final end-of-life disposal or recovery and reuse/recycle. LCA provides a quantitative evaluation of a comprehensive list of environmental issues and is intended to avoid shifting the burden to different life stages or different environmental concerns. The course uses a case-study format to introduce the LCA methodology and demonstrate its application to a variety of product sectors and environmental concerns. There are also hands-on exercises to learn the basic functionality of SimaPro, one of the available commercial LCA software packages, as well as exercises to build and validate unit process data sets using literature searches and/or customization of available processes in commercial databases, such as ecoinvent. The case studies are also used to demonstrate current and emerging developments in LCA methodology. The overall goal is to provide the skills necessary to design and manage a formal LCA project in the business, consulting, or government sectors. Prerequisites: F&ES 884 is recommended as a foundation for this course; in addition, F&ES 762 or F&ES 814 is recommended for students unfamiliar with constructing mass and energy balances, conducting dimensional analyses, etc. Thomas Swarr

F&ES 865b, Industrial Ecology Advanced Methods: Modeling the Socioeconomic Metabolism 3 credits. Humans have transformed Earth’s surface to serve their production and consumption systems. While social sciences study the sphere of human decision making and behavior rooted in culture, organization, and preferences, and earth scientists study the effect of human actions on nature, industrial ecology studies the acquisition and transformation of natural resources to products, their use and disposal, and the ensuing emissions in biophysical terms. This course provides an in-depth treatment of the methods industrial ecologists have developed to study this socioeconomic metabolism. The course focuses on input-output analysis and dynamic stock-flow models of materials in products and infrastructures. It also addresses hybrid approaches, such as the combination of life-cycle assessment and input-output methods or the application of such methods in conjunction with prospective models rooted in stock-flow dynamics. The course is primarily focused on modeling tools, combining blackboard-based lectures with computer-based exercises. Modeling is conducted in MatLab. Grading is based on problem sets, a midterm, and a final exam. Edgar G. Hertwich

F&ES 870b, Climate Change Mitigation and Industrial Ecology 3 credits. This seminar examines the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from energy production, industry, buildings, transport, and land use. It focuses on the contribution of industrial ecology to understanding the system that gives rise to the emissions, the interlinkages among sectors, and the driving forces behind recent increases in emissions. On this basis, the course addresses the analysis of options for emission reductions, using industry and electricity production as examples. It provides a background on selected research methods used to produce results used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its most recent assessment report on climate change mitigation and discusses the implications of methods and assumptions behind models for policy support statements. A few exercises serve to provide an insight into the methods. Students learn to synthesize the scientific literature, develop effective presentations of the findings, and lead discussions. Active participation in exercises and classes is required. Grading is based on class participation and a written exam. Enrollment limited to twenty. Edgar G. Hertwich

[F&ES 872b, Introduction to Green Chemistry 3 credits. Overview of the basic concepts and methods needed to design processes and synthesize materials in an environmentally benign way. Related issues of global sustainability. Case studies that suggest possible solutions for the serious environmental and toxicological issues currently facing industry and society. Paul T. Anastas]

[F&ES 881a, FT: Field Experience in Industrial Operations 1 credit. A series of one-day field trips designed to expose students to the various aspects of industrial ecology. In previous years, students have visited waste management facilities, utility providers, product manufacturers, clean tech start-ups, and green consultancies in New England and the surrounding regions. The field trips allow students to gain a better understanding of the concepts and themes of industrial ecology (such as material and process flows, life-cycle assessment, and closed-loop systems) in the context of existing operations. Marian R. Chertow and members of the Industrial Environmental Management and Energy Special Interest Group]

F&ES 884a/ENAS 645a, Industrial Ecology 3 credits. Industrial ecology studies (1) the flows of materials and energy in industrial and consumer activities, (2) the effects of these flows on the environment, and (3) the influences of economic, political, regulatory, and social factors on the flow, use, and transformation of resources. The goals of the course are to define and describe industrial ecology; to demonstrate the relationships among production, consumption, sustainability, and industrial ecology in diverse settings, from firms to cities to international trade flows; to show how industrial ecology serves as a framework for the consideration of environmental and sustainability-related aspects of science, technology, and policy; and to define and describe tools, applications, and implications of industrial ecology. Marian R. Chertow, Edgar G. Hertwich

F&ES 885b/ENAS 660b, Green Engineering and Sustainability 3 credits. This course provides a hands-on foundation in green engineering and the design and assessment of green products. Approaching sustainability from a design perspective requires a fundamental conceptual shift from the current paradigms of product toward a more sustainable system, based on efficient and effective use of benign materials and energy. Through course assignments, class exercises, and a term-long team project, students are challenged with the same issues facing production and consumption systems today. The course is organized around the “engineering design process” from opportunity definition; criteria definition; ideation; alternatives assessment; and solution selection, implementation, and monitoring. To begin, the mega-trends driving sustainability discussions are presented and the case for new greener product systems is made. The course emphasizes quantitative and rigorous analysis of green design in addition to the tools needed to develop these designs. The foundational principles of the course can be summarized in the five I’s: (1) Innovation—we can’t solve problems at the same level of thinking used to create them, (2) Inherency—we can’t solve problems without looking at the nature of the system that created them, (3) Interdisciplinary—we can’t solve problems without looking at other aspects of the problem, (4) Integration—we can’t solve problems without connecting segments at a system level, and (5) International—we can’t solve problems without considering their context. The current approach to design, manufacturing, and end of life is discussed in the context of examples and case studies from various sectors, providing a basis for what and how to consider designing green products, processes, and systems. Fundamental engineering design topics include pollution prevention and source reduction, separations and disassembly, virtual and rapid prototyping, life cycle design, management, and assessment. Enrollment limited to thirty-two. Preference given to second-year M.E.M. students. Paul T. Anastas

F&ES 888b/ARCH 4226b, Ecological Urban Design 3 credits. This course lays the groundwork for students from the School of Architecture and the School of Forestry & Environmental Studies to collaboratively explore and define ecologically driven urban design. The goal is to work as an interdisciplinary group to cultivate a perspective on the developing field of urban ecology and approaches to implementing urban ecological design. The transformation of urban ecology from a role in studying a system to studying and shaping urban ecosystems is a primary focus for the course, which concentrates on the following questions: How do we define urban ecosystems? How do we combine science, design, and planning to shape and manage urban ecosystems? How do we implement effective and adaptable experimental and monitoring methods specific to urban sites and human subjects in order to conduct viable urban ecological research? The course uses the Earth Stewardship Initiative, a large land-planning project developed for the Ecological Society of America in Sacramento, Calif., to create a real-world project where interdisciplinary teams can work to combine ecological applications and design with the goal of shaping urban systems to improve the ecological, social, and infrastructural function of city components. Limited enrollment. Alexander J. Felson

F&ES 894a, Green Building: Issues and Perspectives 3 credits. Our built environment shapes the planet, our communities, and each of us. Green building seeks to minimize environmental impacts, strengthen the fabric of our cities and towns, and make our work and home lives more productive and fulfilling. This course is an applied course, exploring both the technical and the social-business-political aspects of buildings. Topics range from building science (hygrothermal performance of building enclosures) to indoor environmental quality; from product certifications to resilience (robust buildings and communities in the face of disasters and extended service outages). The purpose of this course is to build a solid background in the processes and issues related to green buildings, equipping students with practical knowledge about the built environment. Extensive use is made of resources from BuildingGreen, Inc., one of the leading information companies supporting green building and green building professionals. The course is primarily a lecture-discussion one with some fieldwork, substantial emphasis on research and group project work, and online individual testing. The course is strengthened by several guest lectures by leading green building professionals from across the country and across many disciplines: from architecture to material science, from engineering to green building business. The class meets once a week, with the instructor available to students during that same day. Enrollment limited to twenty-four. Peter Yost

F&ES 895a, Green Building Intensive: How Buildings Work 1 credit. This course is designed to introduce students, through hands-on experience and site visits, to how buildings work: their design, their materials selections, their construction, and their operation. Content includes: (1) history of building design and construction; (2) professions and skills involved in the design and construction of buildings; (3) components and functions of buildings; (4) the science behind building performance; and (5) green certification programs. This course is a standalone half-term lab/practical course that is designed to also be a companion course with F&ES 894. F&ES 895 can be taken prior to, with, or after F&ES 894. Enrollment limited to twelve. Peter Yost

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F&ES Undergraduate Courses

Ecology

Ecosystem Ecology

[F&ES 221/E&EB 230/EVST 221, Field Ecology A field-based introduction to ecological research. Experimental and descriptive approaches, comparative analysis, and modeling are explored through field and small-group projects.]

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation Biology

F&ES 315a/E&EB 115a, Conservation Biology An introduction to ecological and evolutionary principles underpinning efforts to conserve Earth’s biodiversity. Efforts to halt the rapid increase in disappearance of both plants and animals. Discussion of sociological and economic issues. Linda Puth

[F&ES 365a/E&EB 365a, Landscape Ecology See F&ES 500a for description.]

[F&ES 370a/E&EB 370a, Aquatic Ecology See F&ES 738a for description.]

Physical Sciences

Environmental Chemistry

F&ES 261a/G&G 261a/EVST 404a, Minerals and Human Health Study of the interrelationships between Earth materials and processes and personal and public health. The transposition from the environment of the chemical elements essential for life. Prerequisite: one year of college-level chemistry or permission of the instructor; G&G 110 recommended. Ruth Blake

[F&ES 307a/EVST 307a, Organic Pollutants in the Environment See F&ES 706a for description.]

F&ES 344b/EVST 344b, Aquatic Chemistry See F&ES 707b for description.

Water Resources

[F&ES 367b/EVST 367b, Water Resources and Environmental Change The effects of variations in the hydrologic cycle on the global distribution of freshwater. The role of environmental change in regulating freshwater supply and quality. The influences of agriculture, industry, mining, urbanization, climate change, and energy-production alternatives on freshwater resources in the United States and abroad. James E. Saiers]

[F&ES 440b/EVST 440b, Environmental Hydrology See F&ES 714b for description.]

Quantitative and Research Methods

F&ES 290b/EVST 290b, Geographic Information Systems 3 credits. A practical introduction to the nature and use of geographic information systems (GIS) in environmental science and management. Applied techniques for the acquisition, creation, storage, management, visualization, animation, transformation, analysis, and synthesis of cartographic data in digital form. C. Dana Tomlin

[F&ES 441a or b/EVST 441a or b/G&G 440a or b/MCDB 441a or b, Methods in Geomicrobiology A laboratory-based course providing interdisciplinary practical training in geomicrobiological methods including microbial enrichment and cultivation techniques; light, epifluorescence, and electron microscopy; and molecular methods (DNA extraction, PCR, T-RFLP, FISH). Prerequisite: college-level chemistry. Ruth Blake]

G&G 362b/ARCG 362b/EVST 362b, Observing Earth from Space See F&ES 726b for description.

Social Sciences

Environmental Policy

[F&ES 245b/EVST 245b/PLSC 146b, International Environmental Policy and Governance See F&ES 829b for description.]

F&ES 255a/EVST 255a/PLSC 215a, Environmental Politics and Law Exploration of the politics, policy, and law associated with attempts to manage environmental quality and natural resources. Themes of democracy, liberty, power, property, equality, causation, and risk. Case histories include air quality, water quality and quantity, pesticides and toxic substances, land use, agriculture and food, parks and protected areas, and energy. John P. Wargo

F&ES 277b/EVST 277b, Environmental Science and Policy The synthesis of science, both for scientists and for policy makers. Usefulness of the two types of synthesis for developing scientific research and policy. Advancement of complementary practices between science and policy arenas. Concepts and data from ecological and biogeochemical disciplines are used to predict and manage the effects of environmental change on ecosystem services that underlie the provisioning of resources such as food and clean water. Mark A. Bradford

EVST 292a/GLBL 217a/PLSC 149a, Sustainability in the Twenty-First Century Sustainability as an overarching framework for life in the twenty-first century. Ways in which this integrated policy concept diverges from the approaches to environmental protection and economic development that were pursued in the twentieth century. The interlocking challenges that stem from society’s simultaneous desires for economic, environmental, and social progress despite the tensions across these realms. Daniel C. Esty

Social and Political Ecology

[F&ES 285b/EVST 285b, Political Ecology: Nature, Culture, and Power Study of the relationship between society and the environment. Global processes of environmental conservation, development, and conflicts over natural resource use; political-economic contexts of environmental change; ways in which understandings of nature are discursively bound up with notions of culture and identity. Amity Doolittle]

[F&ES 384a/ANTH 382a/ER&M 395a/EVST 345a, Environmental Anthropology History of the anthropological study of the environment: nature-culture dichotomy, ecology and social organization, methodological debates, politics of the environment, and knowing the environment. Michael R. Dove]

F&ES 422a/ANTH 409a/ER&M 394a/EVST 422a, Climate and Society See F&ES 878a for description.

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