Yale University.Calendar.Directories.

Courses

501b, Issues in Nursing 1.5 credit hours. This course explores personal and professional issues affecting the ability of a nurse to deliver professional nursing care. Content includes ethical, legal, cultural, and other policy-related aspects of nursing practice. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. R. Krause

503a/b, Biomedical Foundations of Health and Disease 6 credit hours. This course is offered in the fall/spring terms of the first GEPN year. Lectures focus on the basic scientific principles of physiology and include an introduction to pathophysiology. Anatomical, biochemical, and developmental features are involved in discussion of the inseparable structural-functional relations within the human body. Topics include physiology, biochemistry, immunology, genetics, introductory embryology, and microbiology. In addition, the course addresses topics introduced in 516a and 517a/b. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. S. McKay

504a/b, Advanced Health Assessment 4 credit hours. This course is designed to provide the student with the knowledge and skills needed to conduct a comprehensive health history and physical examination across the life span for the professional registered nurse (R.N.). Emphasis is on the assessment of physical, developmental, psychosocial (cognitive, affective, and behavioral), cultural, and spiritual dimensions of the client and/or families, as well as factors that influence behavioral responses to health and illness. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. D. Fahs, A. Marshall

506a/b, Interprofessional Longitudinal Clinical Experience 2 credit hours. The Interprofessional Longitudinal Clinical Experience (ILCE) is designed to prepare first-year health professional students to function effectively in the clinical environment. This course teams students from Yale School of Nursing, Yale School of Medicine, and the Yale Physician Associate Program to work together at a clinical site alongside faculty mentors. Groups meet approximately once a week throughout the first two terms of school. In conjunction with the plan of study at each school, the ILCE aims to achieve two overarching goals. By working together in interprofessional teams in a clinical setting, the students will (1) begin to build a working knowledge of the patient-care experience and multidisciplinary clinical environment and (2) learn to adapt history-taking and physical examination skills to meet the needs of patients in the clinical setting. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. L. Honan, D. Fahs

509a, Introduction to Drug Therapy 3 credit hours. This course is offered in the fall/spring terms of the first GEPN year. The lectures focus on the appropriate clinical use of drugs. Emphasis is placed on pharmacology, side effects, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, and the therapeutic use of medications across the populations. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Integrated throughout the curriculum in the prespecialty year. L. Meland

511a, Clinical Applications of Human Anatomy 2 credit hours. The effective assessment, diagnosis, and management of disease depend on knowledge of the structures of human beings. This introductory course reviews and discusses the structure and function of the major body systems. The aim of the course is to combine clinically relevant anatomical information with performance of clinical skills that will form the basis of clinical reasoning. Correlation of anatomical knowledge with clinical presentation both in the classroom and in the laboratory is emphasized. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. L. Honan, P. Wilhelm, W. Stewart

513b or c, Community Health Nursing and Public Health 2.5 credit hours. This course explores the multidisciplinary theoretical foundations that are the basis for community health nursing practice. Community health nurses provide preventive, therapeutic, rehabilitation, and hospice services across the life span. The clinical experience focuses on the delivery of these health services in community organizations. A community-as-partner assessment and diagnosis project, which culminates in identification of a community health problem and potential solutions, augments core seminar content. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis only. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. M. Kennedy

514b or c, Clinical Practice in Maternal-Newborn Nursing 2 credit hours. This course focuses on clinical practice essential to nursing care of women, newborns, and their families throughout the childbearing cycle and the neonatal period. Clinical settings include hospital and ambulatory care. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis only. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Faculty

515b or c, Seminar in Maternal-Newborn Nursing 2 credit hours. This course presents theory essential to the provision of nursing care to childbearing families throughout the childbearing cycle, the neonatal period, and the pre- and inter-conceptional phases. Application of the nursing process as it relates to the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health is emphasized. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Faculty

516a, Clinical Practice in Medical-Surgical Nursing 4 credit hours. This course focuses on the scientific principles, psychomotor techniques, and communication skills fundamental to nursing practice. Sociocultural variations influencing patient care are introduced. Faculty guide small groups of students in individually planned clinical experiences that provide opportunities to use the nursing process in caring for the hospitalized adult with selected pathophysiological problems. Experience also includes weekly clinical conferences and selected observational experiences. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis only. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Clinical experience twelve hours per week. P. Martinez

517a/b, Seminar in Medical-Surgical Nursing 4 credit hours. This course focuses on the dynamic relationship between physical and psychosocial responses to pathophysiological problems occurring in the hospitalized adult and older adults. Application of the nursing process as it relates to the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health is emphasized. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. L. Honan, S. Korpak

518b or c, Clinical Practice in Pediatric Nursing 2 credit hours. Utilizing a family-centered approach, this course provides clinical experience in identifying and assessing children’s physiological and developmental needs, and planning, implementing, and evaluating a plan of nursing care to meet the needs of a particular child and his/her family in health care settings. Students have opportunities to use principles of growth and development, knowledge of the child’s and family’s physical and emotional responses to illness, and principles of pediatric nursing in caring for children and their families. The student gains skill and knowledge in the nursing role and an appreciation for the importance of utilizing research findings in practice and collaborating with other health professionals. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis only. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Faculty

519b or c, Seminar in Pediatric Nursing 2 credit hours. This course presents theory essential to promote health and adaptation to illness for children and their families. Emphasis is placed on growth and development, as well as pathophysiological, social, environmental, and cultural factors that influence children’s and families’ response to health and illness. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Faculty

520b or c, Clinical Practice in Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing 2 credit hours. This course builds on skills learned in medical-surgical nursing by providing clinical experience in assessing, planning, implementing, and evaluating a plan of nursing care to meet the unique needs of patients with acute and chronic psychiatric disabilities across the life span. Students gain skills in the use of therapeutic communication, working with the interdisciplinary team, and implementing all phases of the nurse-patient relationship while applying concepts taught in 521. This course is graded on a Pass/Fail basis only. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. R. Krause

521b or c, Seminar in Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing 2 credit hours. In combination with 520, this seminar provides the foundations of understanding and treating psychiatric disabilities within a bio-psycho-social-spiritual-cultural-theoretical framework of health promotion and disease prevention related to both mental health and mental illness. Course content includes the pathophysiology, assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation of cognitive, perceptual, emotional, behavioral, and interpersonal symptoms associated with common psychiatric diagnoses for individuals with mental illness and their families across the life span. Students analyze the economic, legal, and ethical issues that influence care in a variety of settings. Required of all students in the prespecialty year. Four hours per week, first half of spring or summer term, as assigned. R. Krause

529a, Statistics for Clinical Nursing Research 2 credit hours. This course presents the descriptive and inferential techniques that are most commonly used in nursing studies. The conceptualization of the technique and the ability to select the appropriate technique to answer a research question or test a hypothesis are covered. An additional emphasis is on the interpretation of statistical analyses in articles reporting research findings to enhance evidence-based practice. Required of all M.S.N. students in the first year of specialization. Two hours per week lecture/discussion. M. Funk

533a, Advanced Pathophysiology 3 credit hours. This course provides students with advanced physiologic and pathophysiologic concepts central to understanding maintenance of health and the prevention and management of disease across the life span. Content on cellular function, genetics, immunology, inflammation, infection, and stress and adaptation provides the framework on which further specialty content knowledge is built. Current research, case studies, and application to advanced nursing practice are highlighted. This is a core course. Required of all M.S.N. students. M. Cyr

535b, Evidence-Based Clinical Practice 2 credit hours. This course provides theoretical and practical experience in appraisal and application of research evidence into practice. The emphasis is on applying that knowledge to the critique of published research. Required of all M.S.N. students. Two hours per week. M.T. Knobf, H. Kennedy

554a, Advanced Health Assessment for the RN 3 credit hours. This course is required of all RNs entering the M.S.N. program regardless of specialty. It is conducted over the summer leading up to and in a one-week intensive during orientation of new students. It is designed to provide the student with the knowledge and skills needed to conduct a comprehensive health history and physical examination for the advanced practice registered nurse. Emphasis is on the assessment of physical, psychosocial (cognitive, affective, behavioral), spiritual, and cultural dimensions of the client, as well as factors that influence behavioral responses to health and illness. Normal/abnormal variations in physical exam findings and differential diagnoses are presented. A. Marshall

556b, Clinical Practice for Family and Adult/Gerontology Primary Care Nurse Practitioners 4.5–6 credit hours. Course content includes clinical practice in health assessment and the provision of primary and focused health care. Students meet weekly for a one-and-one-half-hour clinical seminar that is held concurrently with clinical practice. Clinical seminar serves as a forum for students to present and discuss cases and explore issues encountered in clinical practice. Required of adult/gerontology primary care and family nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Clinical seminar discussions for family nurse practitioner students focus on providing care for patients across the life span. AGPCNP discussions focus on caring for adult and gerontologic populations, including adolescents, adults, and older adults. Prerequisite: all required courses in the fall term of the first specialty year. Taken concurrently with 557b and, for family nurse practitioner students, with 635b. Eight to sixteen hours of clinical practice (fifteen weeks) and one and one-half hours of clinical seminar per week. Faculty

557a, Primary Care Problems of Adults I 2 credit hours. This is the first of four didactic courses designed to enable students to develop the necessary knowledge base and problem-solving skills for primary care practice as nurse practitioners. Classes focus on health promotion, disease prevention, differential diagnoses, and evidence-based management of common health conditions in diverse populations of patients from adolescence to senescence. Required of all adult/gerontology primary care, family, and midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Taken concurrently with 670a for adult/gerontology primary care and family nurse practitioner students. Prerequisite: 504a/b or 554a. C. Bruno

557b, Primary Care Problems of Adults I 2 credit hours. This is the second of four didactic courses designed to enable students to gain the problem-solving and clinical strategies necessary for primary care practice as nurse practitioners; it builds upon content taught in 557a. Classes focus on health promotion, disease prevention, differential diagnoses, and evidence-based management of common health conditions for diverse populations of patients from adolescence to senescence. Required of all adult/gerontology primary care, family, and midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Prerequisites: 504a/b or 554a; and 557a. S. Nam

580a or c, Women’s Health I: Advanced Health Assessment and Clinical Care of the Well Woman 3 credit hours. This course teaches students to provide ambulatory, well-woman gynecologic and obstetrical care for healthy women across the life span. Students have eight hours of clinical practice per week for twelve weeks and attend clinical conference for one hour per week. The clinical seminar serves as a forum for students to explore issues encountered in clinical practice. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Faculty

581a, Women’s Health I: Theoretical Foundations of Well-Woman Care 3 credit hours. This course introduces students to reproductive-based health care for pregnant and nonpregnant women across the life span. Theory and evidence-based practice are presented through regularly scheduled class sessions, seminars, and problem-based learning case studies. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. G. Novick

581b, Women’s Health II: Theoretical Foundations for Care of Women with Common Health Issues 2 credit hours. This course continues to address reproductive-based health care for pregnant and non-pregnant women across the life span, but introduces common gynecologic complications of the high-risk pregnant woman. Theory and evidence-based practice are presented through regularly scheduled class sessions, seminars, and problem-based learning case studies. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. L. Fields

582b or c, Women’s Health II: Clinical Care of Women with Common Health Issues 2 credit hours. This course provides students with increasing experience in ambulatory gynecologic and obstetrical settings for all women across the life span. Students have eight hours of clinical practice per week for fourteen weeks and attend clinical conference for one hour per week. The clinical seminar serves as a forum for students to explore issues encountered in clinical practice. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Faculty

583b, Theoretical Foundations for Care in Childbirth 2 credit hours. This course introduces theory, skills, and management of the well woman during the intrapartum and postpartum periods. Care of the healthy newborn is also explored. Emphasis is on supporting normal physiologic birth and the transition to motherhood. Theory and evidence-based practice are presented through regularly scheduled class sessions, seminars, and problem-based learning case studies. Required of midwifery students in the first year of specialization. E. McMahon

584b or c, Clinical Care of Childbirth 2.5 credit hours. Students are provided with supervised clinical experience in labor, birth, newborn, and postpartum care. Students have twelve hours of clinical practice per week for twelve weeks and attend clinical conference for one hour per week. The clinical seminar serves as a forum for students to explore issues encountered in clinical practice. Required of midwifery students in the first year of specialization. Faculty

607b, Pathophysiology and Management of Common Adult Clinical Problems I 4 credit hours. This course provides a basis for predicting the vulnerability for common cardiovascular, respiratory, hematologic, renal, and neurological clinical problems that occur as a result of illness or outcome of treatment in adult and geriatric patients. Assessment, management, and evaluation are emphasized. Normal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacological management of these conditions are included. Required of adult/gerontology acute care nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. M. Cyr

609a, Advanced Diagnostics in Acute Care 3 credit hours. This course provides comprehensive content necessary in the assessment of the acutely or critically ill patient. Emphasis is on examination of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, based on complex interpretations from laboratory and technological findings. Required of all adult/gerontology acute care nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. The electrocardiographic (ECG) components of the course may be taken as an elective by students in any specialty who have an interest in ECG interpretation. Three hours per week for fifteen weeks. A. Cable, M. Funk

610a, Advanced Health Assessment in Adult/Gerontology Acute Care 3 credit hours. This course concentrates on development of a systematic methodology of identifying acutely and critically ill patients’ needs for health care. Patient history taking, physical examination, diagnostic studies and interpretation, interpretation of advanced hemodynamic and oxygenation monitoring, analysis of medical diagnoses, documentation, and student case presentations form the basis for this clinical/seminar course. Select clinical problems of patients in acute and critical care adult/gerontology settings are studied in the context of student case presentations, clinical practicum, and simulations. Required of adult/gerontology acute care nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Prerequisite: 504a/b or 554a, or current enrollment in 554a. A. Cable, M. Cyr

612b, Advanced Specialty Practicum I 3 credit hours. This practicum and seminar in the care of acutely, critically, and complex chronically ill adult and geriatric patients provides students with direct care experiences. The focus of this course is on assessment and management. Critical thinking, clinical analysis of patient data, formulation of differential diagnoses, and planning of care are emphasized. Clinical seminars focus on case presentation by students. Required of adult/gerontology acute care nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Prerequisites: 504a/b or 554a; and 609a and 610a. Eight hours of clinical practice plus one hour of seminar per week. A. Cable

615b, Principles of Advanced Oncology Practice 2 credit hours. This course introduces students to the principles of advanced oncology nursing practice. It focuses on (1) the problem of cancer—the epidemiology, biology, genetics, and immunology of cancer; (2) advanced practice nursing across the cancer care continuum (prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, chronic illness, and end of life), emphasizing nursing strategies for promoting patient- and family-centered care; and (3) the treatment of cancer, exploring the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and short- and long-term side effects of experimental and common traditional anticancer treatment modalities, as well as complementary, palliative, and supportive care. M. Davies

632a/b, Primary Care of Children I 2 credit hours per term. This course provides clinical experience in well-child care and management of common pediatric problems in a variety of primary care settings. Students provide primary health care, acute care, and beginning case management for pediatric patients in the context of their families. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Four and one-half hours per week in a clinical setting and two hours of clinical conference per week. E. Borsuk

635b, Management of Common Pediatric Problems 2 credit hours. This course is designed to focus on the assessment, diagnosis, evidence-based management, and best-practice guidelines for care of children from birth through adolescence for common pediatric health problems. Required of family and pediatric nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization; open to others with permission of the instructor. N. Banasiak

640a or b, Clinical Practice in the Primary Care of Adolescents 2 credit hours. This course is designed to aid the student in gaining elementary skills in the assessment of adolescent development, both physiological and psychological; in the recognition and management of deviations from normal development and health status; and in intermediate-level skill in the care of adolescents, including health education. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students in the second term of the first year or the first term of the second year of specialization. Six hours weekly in a clinical setting in one term and six hours of clinical conference. A. Moriarty Daley

641b, Primary Care of Adolescents 1.5 credit hours. This course is designed to provide the student with a conceptual model for assessing normal psychological and physiological adolescent development, an understanding of the clinical relevance of basic deviations from normal development, and an understanding of the diagnosis and clinical care of adolescents in primary care settings. Required of adult/gerontology primary care, family, and pediatric nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization; open to others with permission of the instructor. One and one-half hours per week. A. Moriarty Daley

643a, Individual and Family Development across the Life Span: Infancy through End of Life 3 credit hours. This course focuses on a critical overview of conceptual and theoretical perspectives on individual development from infancy through end of life and on family development. Sociocultural, ethnic, gender, genetic, environmental, and political factors that influence individual and family development are reviewed and evaluated. Discussions focus on transitions from infancy to end of life. Assessment of family functioning, strengths, and vulnerabilities is presented from clinical and research perspectives. Selected family issues are analyzed within theoretical, clinical, and policy perspectives; and issues of particular significance for evidence-based advanced nursing are stressed. Required of adult/gerontology primary care, family, and pediatric nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization; open to others with permission of the instructor. L. Sadler, C. Bruno

650a/b, Clinical Practice in Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing across the Life Span 4 credit hours. The goal of this two-term practicum is to provide the student with an opportunity to develop clinical skills with individuals and family across the life span. While in psychiatric clinical settings, students apply skills including holistic physical and mental health assessment, formulate differential diagnosis, plan and implement developmentally appropriate psychiatric nursing interventions, and evaluate interventions and outcomes with children, adolescents, adults, older adults, and their families. Emphasis is placed on application of a variety of population-specific assessment skills and use of differential diagnosis, and a beginning utilization of pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatment methods with individuals, groups, and families. Clinical experiences require the student to synthesize knowledge from courses, supplemental readings, clinical seminars, and practice experiences. Students are assigned to psychiatric clinical placement on the basis of development of competencies, previous clinical experiences, and interests. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. This course may be taken concurrently with didactic first-year PMH specialty course work. Supervision seminar meets two hours per week. Psychiatric–Mental Health Program Faculty

657a, Mental Health Assessment across the Life Span 2.5 credit hours. This course provides students with concepts, techniques, and knowledge necessary to conduct accurate mental health evaluations of persons across the life span. Students learn to collect data guided by the principles of general health screening, psychiatric history, mental status examination, and diagnostic criteria from the DSM-5, therapeutic interviewing, and comprehensive history taking. A bio-psycho-social-cultural-spiritual framework is used to formulate a case history, determine accurate differential diagnoses, and make a psychiatric diagnosis using the DSM-5 framework. Beginning development of treatment planning is also emphasized. Mental health assessment also emphasizes health risks within the psychiatric population, differentiation of physical conditions that may present as a primary psychiatric disorder, mental health promotion, and early case-finding to prevent mental illness. Other components of mental health assessment include the use of rating scales; evaluation of risk from dangerousness to self, others, or inability to care for self; the influence of family, sociocultural background, and developmental achievements; substance use and abuse; forensics; and trauma history. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. S. Durso

661a/b, Individual Psychotherapy Seminar I and II 2 credit hours (1 credit each term). This course provides an overview of the major schools of personality theory and psychological development and the individual psychotherapy treatment modalities that were developed from them. In the first term, students deepen and expand their knowledge of fundamental elements in developing and maintaining the therapeutic relationship with clients in mental health settings. The student conceptualizes personality characteristics, behavior, and defensive structure in order to better understand the dynamics of the patient and the therapeutic relationship. In the second term, the student integrates these concepts with particular schools of theory and practice. A comparison of psychotherapeutic treatment modalities assists the student in beginning to identify and utilize select interventions specifically suited to individual patient problems identified in advanced practice psychiatric nursing. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. A. de Lisser

663a/b, Psychopathology across the Life Span I and II 2 credit hours (each term). This course examines the psychopathology and neurobiology of major psychiatric disorders across the life span. Essentials of neuroanatomy and neurobiology are examined as they relate to psychiatric symptoms. Disorders selected for examination are those most commonly seen in clinical settings in children, adolescents, adults, and older adults, including anxiety; depression; and behavioral, personality, and cognitive disorders (ADHD, Alzheimer’s). The public health importance, epidemiology, risk factors, and neuroscience are reviewed. The examination integrates genetic and environmental influences to support an understanding of the interpersonal, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes that define and underlie major mental illnesses. Evidence-based treatments are discussed in relationship to their impact on behavior, symptoms, neurobiology, and family systems. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization; open to others with permission of the instructor. L. Powell

667a, Advanced Pediatric Health Assessment and Promotion 3 credit hours. This course is designed to enhance the student’s pediatric health assessment skills and to introduce the student to the primary care of children from infancy through pre-adolescence. Key aspects of assessment, health promotion, and disease prevention in culturally diverse pediatric populations are discussed. Clinical applications of evidence-based practice guidelines in the care of children are reinforced through laboratory and simulation experiences, as well as through rotations in hospital newborn care settings. Required of family and pediatric nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. M. Swartz, N. Banasiak

670a, Advanced Adult Health Assessment 3 credit hours. This course is designed to enhance students’ adult health assessment skills in the context of primary care for patients from adolescence through senescence. Through laboratory sessions, simulation, and clinical activities, students demonstrate achievement of culturally responsive advanced health assessment techniques, data collection, and application of appropriate technology in health assessment. Normal and abnormal adult variations are presented. Required of adult/gerontology primary care and family nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Faculty

704a/b/c, Master’s Independent Study This elective study is initiated by the student and negotiated with faculty. The purpose is to allow in-depth pursuit of individual areas of interest and/or practice. A written proposal must be submitted and signed by the student, the faculty member(s), and the appropriate specialty director. Credit varies according to the terms of the contract.

717a, Transitions to Professional Practice 3 credit hours. Advanced practice nursing occurs in contexts that inevitably influence practice. This course provides students an integrative experience in applying health policy, organizational, regulatory, safety, quality, and ethical concepts to care. It provides the opportunity for students to explore the theoretical and practical considerations underlying the roles of advanced practice nurses (leader, educator, researcher, advocate, clinician, and consultant). The course is organized into modules incorporating the following content areas, explored utilizing a case-based approach: Regulation and Scope of Practice; Leadership and Organizational Dynamics; Health Care Access, Coverage, and Finance; Clinical Ethics; and Safety and Quality. Required of all M.S.N. students in the final year. This is a hybrid course that includes on-site interactive seminars as well as online asynchronous sessions. Group work and preparation are expectations outside of the classroom. M. Davies

733b, Living with Dying 1.5–3.0 credit hours. This course develops students’ cultural and gender awareness, understanding, and competencies in creating environments to relieve suffering for individuals and their families who have experienced a death or are caring for someone who is dying. Emphasis is on nonpharmacologic interventions to relieve suffering, including spiritual, interpersonal, and sociocultural. The course is structured with the premise that relief from suffering, meaning, and transcendence at the end of life are best achieved and understood through the interpersonal use of narrative techniques, like storytelling, to facilitate communication. One and one-half hours per week. R. McCorkle

756a/b, Advanced Clinical Practice for Adult/Gerontology Primary Care and Family Nurse Practitioners 6 credit hours. This clinical course builds upon the experiences gained in 556b and provides students further opportunity to develop advanced nursing skills, clinical judgment, and evidence-based patient management strategies necessary to manage common acute and chronic health care conditions. Students participate in designated weekly primary care clinical experiences arranged by faculty. In addition, students meet weekly for a one-and-one-half-hour clinical conference that is held concurrently with clinical practice. Clinical seminar discussions for family nurse practitioner students focus on family-centered care and providing care for patients across the life span. Clinical seminar discussions for all other students focus on providing patient-centered care for patients from adolescence to senescence. Clinical conference serves as a forum for students to present and discuss cases and explore issues encountered in clinical practice. Required of adult/gerontology primary care and family nurse practitioner students in the final year. Taken concurrently with 757a/b and, for family nurse practitioners, with 833a/b. Prerequisite (or concurrent with): 556b. Eight to sixteen hours of clinical practice per week (fifteen weeks), and one and one-half hours of clinical conference per week (each term). Faculty

757a, Primary Care of Adults II 2 credit hours. This is the third of four didactic courses designed to enable students to develop the necessary knowledge base and problem-solving skills for primary care practice as nurse practitioners. Classes focus on health promotion and maintenance, and assessment, differential diagnoses, and evidence-based management of acute and chronic conditions for patients from adolescence to senescence, highlighting management of patients with co-morbid conditions. Required of adult/gerontology primary care and family nurse practitioner students in the final year. Taken concurrently with 756a. Prerequisites: 556b and 557a/b. G. Marrocco

757b, Primary Care of Adults II 2 credit hours. This is the final of four didactic courses designed to enable students to develop the necessary knowledge base and problem-solving skills for primary care practice as nurse practitioners. Classes focus on health promotion and maintenance, and assessment, differential diagnoses, and evidence-based management of acute and chronic conditions for patients from adolescence to senescence, highlighting management of patients with complex co-morbid conditions. Required of adult/gerontology primary care and family nurse practitioner students in the final year. Taken concurrently with 756b. Prerequisites: 556b, 557a/b, 756a, and 757a. G. Marrocco

768a/b, Clinical Practice in Diabetes Care and Management 1.65 credit hours (each term). The focus of this practicum is comprehensive management of a caseload of patients with diabetes specific to the student’s elected specialty (adult/gerontology acute care, adult/gerontology primary care, family, midwifery/women’s health, and pediatric). The spring term is an extension of the fall and focuses on the management of common problems related to long-term diabetes complications, encouraging clinical decision making and management of co-morbidities. Student’s clinical practicum in diabetes care is in various settings specific to student’s specialty program. Four hours per week of practice required both terms. One and one-half hours of clinical conference per week. C. Cardenas

769a, Advanced Concepts and Principles of Diabetes Care 2 credit hours. This seminar focuses on the concepts and principles of diabetes managed care based on the annually updated American Diabetes Association Standards of Care. It includes principles of primary care (screening, early detection, intervention, and patient education), secondary care principles related to diabetes management (various treatment modalities, patient education, and self-care), and tertiary care related to complications. These concepts and principles of care are presented relative to type of diabetes (type 1, type 2, gestational, diabetes in pregnancy, and secondary), age, developmental stage, duration of disease, and ethnicity. A multidisciplinary approach to care issues is emphasized, incorporating the contributions of other disciplines in the collaborative management of diabetes. Important aspects of living with a chronic illness such as psychological, social, occupational, and economic are also emphasized. Required of all students in the diabetes care concentration in the final year. Two hours per week. C. Cardenas

780a, Women’s Health III: Clinical Care of Women with Complex Health Issues 3 credit hours. Students continue clinical experiences in antepartum, intrapartum, newborn, postpartum, gynecology, and primary care areas, extending their abilities through lectures, seminars, case studies, and self-directed learning to provide care in more complicated clinical situations. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the final year of specialization. Faculty

780b, Women’s Health IV: Integration of Women’s Health Care 3 credit hours. This course is designed to help students assimilate all the areas of women’s health outpatient practice in a way that enables them to provide full-scope care with appropriate clinical supervision and academic support, including site preceptors, faculty, school, and library resources. During the course, students continue to refine their ability to provide high-quality, evidence-based practice within appropriate cultural contexts of care and to provide patient safety in clinical practice as they continue to be mindful of the responsibilities and accountability inherent in their emerging professional role. Students are expected to build on the knowledge and skills obtained in all previous courses. Prerequisites: all YSN core courses and all women’s health core courses. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the final year of specialization. Minimum thirty-six hours per week of clinical practice (including 1:3-hour ratio for on-call time as negotiated with clinical preceptors, which is dependent on the clinical site and the student’s ability to demonstrate clinical proficiency). Faculty

781a, Women’s Health III: Theoretical Foundations for Care of Women with Complex Health Issues 2 credit hours. In this course, students continue to develop evidence-based reproductive health care for women across the life span. This course concentrates on the physiologic, developmental, psychosocial, and cultural theories of advanced clinical decision making, focusing on reproductive and developmental health issues of women across the life span. Complex health issues are analyzed through regularly scheduled class sessions, seminars, assignments, and problem-based learning case studies. Emphasis is on collaboration within multidisciplinary teams. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the second year of specialization. L. Fields

782a, Clinical Care of At-Risk Childbirth 2.5 credit hours. Students focus on providing increasingly complex intrapartum, postpartum, and newborn care as members of a multidisciplinary team in diverse settings. Students have twelve hours of clinical practice per week for twelve weeks and attend clinical conference for one hour per week. The clinical seminar serves as a forum for students to explore issues encountered in clinical practice. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the second year of specialization. Prerequisite: students must be certified in neonatal resuscitation through the American Academy of Pediatrics course. C. Jevitt

783a, Theoretical Foundations for Care of At-Risk Childbirth 1.5 credit hours. This course focuses on advanced theoretical concepts and comprehensive management of the pregnant woman with at-risk pregnancies or co-morbid health problems. Recognition of newborn health problems and initial management are explored. Complex health issues are analyzed through regularly scheduled class sessions, seminars, assignments, and problem-based learning case studies. Management includes triage, prenatal, birth, and postpartum emergencies; and perinatal loss. Emphasis is on collaboration within multidisciplinary teams. Required of midwifery students in the second year of specialization. C. Jevitt

784b, Integration of Midwifery Care 4.5 credit hours. This course is designed to help students assimilate all the areas of midwifery practice in a way that enables them to provide full-scope care with appropriate clinical supervision and academic support, including site preceptors, faculty, school, and library resources. During the course, students continue to refine their ability to provide high-quality, evidence-based practice within appropriate cultural contexts of care. They provide patient safety in clinical practice as they continue to be mindful of the responsibilities and accountability inherent in the emerging professional midwifery role. Students are expected to build on the knowledge and skills obtained in all previous courses. Prerequisites: all YSN core courses and all midwifery core courses. Required of midwifery students in the final year of specialization. Minimum thirty-six hours per week of clinical practice (including 1:3-hour ratio for on-call time as negotiated with clinical preceptors, which is dependent on the clinical site and the student’s ability to demonstrate clinical proficiency). Faculty

786a, b, or c, Women’s Health Primary Care Clinical 2 credit hours. Students are provided with supervised clinical experience in adult primary care, including the care of male patients. Emphasis is on health screening, vaccination, and common health problems such as diabetes and hypertension. Students have approximately eleven eight-hour clinicals in an outpatient primary care setting. Required of midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Faculty

802a/b, Advanced Clinical Practicum for Adult/Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioners 8.3 credit hours per term. This yearlong practicum provides students with clinical experience in data-gathering techniques, diagnostic reasoning, management of acute and chronic health problems, application of technology in patient care, consultation, collaboration, health promotion, and risk factor modification. This course builds upon the foundational objectives successfully met in 612b. The differential diagnosis and treatment of complex health problems commonly seen in acutely ill adult/gerontology patients are stressed, with special emphasis on conditions presented in 607b and 807a. The focus is on those acute illnesses with a predictable course and established treatment approaches. Students have the opportunity to manage a caseload of patients from admission through discharge, as well as follow patients on an outpatient basis. A one-hour weekly clinical conference addresses acute care clinical issues. This practicum is required of adult/gerontology acute care nurse practitioner students in the final year of specialization. Preceptors are A.P.R.N.s and physicians. Twenty-four hours per week in an acute care setting for fifteen weeks in the fall term and fifteen weeks in the spring term for a total of 720 hours. L. Andrews

803a/b, Advanced Management of Clinical Problems in Oncology 1 credit hour per term. This course focuses on assessment and management of complex clinical problems of adults with cancer. The role of the advanced practice nurse and the use of clinical practice guidelines to support evidence-based practice are emphasized. Prerequisite: 615b. V. Dest, M. Davies

804a/b, Clinical Practicum for Oncology Nurse Practitioners 1.6 credit hours per term. The goal of this practicum is to prepare students to comprehensively manage a caseload of adults with cancer. Emphasis is on anticipation of high-incidence clinical problems, development of clinical reasoning in assessment, differential diagnosis, and formulation of management strategies. The practice sites provide opportunities to understand cancer care along the trajectory of illness from diagnosis to death/bereavement, develop clinical leadership skills, and deliver high-quality supportive care to patients and families across the disease trajectory. Four hours per week of clinical experience plus one hour per week of clinical conference. M. Lazenby, M. Davies

807a, Pathophysiology and Management of Common Adult Clinical Problems II 4 credit hours. This course provides a basis for predicting the vulnerability for common clinical problems in acute care patients. These include: trauma and endocrine, hepatic, gastrointestinal, infection/sepsis, and end-of-life problems that occur as a result of illness or outcome of treatment. Assessment, management, and evaluation are emphasized. Normal physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacological management of these systems are included. Required of adult/gerontology acute care nurse practitioner students in the final year of specialization. M. Cyr

810a, Critical Care Immersion 3 credit hours. The focus of this practicum is comprehensive management of a caseload of patients with adult/gerontology acute care chronic and/or acute complex conditions. Emphasis is on prediction of common patient problems, formulation of management protocols, and generation of research questions. Students are required to take this course, but may request to exempt out as determined by faculty review of a clinical portfolio and competency. M. Funk

823b, Aging in the United States 3 credit hours. This didactic core course focuses on the examination and study of aging, including the impact of aging on the individual, family, and society. Selected biopsychosocial theories of aging are discussed, and challenges in the care of the aged from the perspective of demographic trends, biological changes, co-morbidity, functional capacity, and legal/ethical domain are critiqued. The interdisciplinary role of the advanced nurse practitioner as manager of care, advocate, and participant in health policy across a variety of settings that affect quality-of-life issues is illustrated. Required of all adult/gerontology primary care nurse practitioner students. Prerequisites: 504a/b or 554a; and 529a, 535b, and 670a. Students may take this course as an elective with permission of the YSN faculty. G. Marrocco

826a or b, Clinical Practice in School Health 2 credit hours. This course is designed to provide an opportunity to develop an advanced practice nursing role in the school setting. Experience is in a school-based clinic where the student provides primary and episodic care to the client population, participates in health education, as well as consults and collaborates with other health and education personnel in the school and community. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students. Six hours of clinical practice per week and six hours of clinical conference. J. Taylor

827b, Pathophysiology and Advanced Management of Chronic Health Conditions in Children and Adolescents 2 credit hours. This course focuses on the pathophysiology and advanced nursing management of chronic health conditions of children and adolescents across settings. Utilizing a systems approach, pathophysiology is reviewed, and then prototype chronic conditions and related evidence-based interventions as well as specialty and primary care management are discussed. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students in the final year. Two hours per week. E. Doyle

829a, Promoting Health in the Community 3 credit hours. This course is a synthesis and application of the process of health promotion, public health, community organization, and epidemiological principles. Emphasis is on prevention of disease, health maintenance, health promotion, and care of the sick within households, families, groups, and communities, across the life span. Required of all M.S.N. students in the final year. Three hours per week. M. Ordway, M. Davies

830a/b, Primary Care of Children II 2 credit hours per term. This course provides clinical experience in advanced pediatric primary care and management, including work with complex families. The student provides health care for children over the course of the year in the Primary Care Center, Yale New Haven Hospital, and at selected pediatric primary care sites in the community. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students in the final year. Five hours weekly in a clinical setting and twelve hours of clinical conference per term. Prerequisite: 632a/b. N. Banasiak

833a/b, Advanced Management of Pediatric Problems in the Primary Care Setting 2 credit hours per term. This two-term course provides a forum for discussion of a variety of pediatric conditions encountered in the primary care setting. It focuses on the assessment and management of complex outpatient pediatric problems and the role of the advanced practice nurse in managing these problems. Lectures, discussions, and cases are presented by guest speakers, faculty, and students. Required of family and pediatric nurse practitioner students in the final year. Prerequisite: 635b. P. Ryan-Krause

834a or b, Specialty Pediatric Clinical Practice 2 credit hours. This clinical practicum provides students with the opportunity to gain additional knowledge and experience in specialty practice areas with relevance to pediatric primary care. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students in the final year. A second term may be taken as an elective in the final year with permission of the course instructor and faculty adviser. Four and one-half hours weekly in a clinical setting and eight hours of clinical conference per term. E. Doyle

845b, Pediatric Pharmacology 1 credit hour. This pharmacology course builds on general principles of pharmacology for advanced practice nurses and is designed to prepare students in the PNP specialty to apply principles of pharmacotherapeutics in the management of children’s and adolescents’ health. Students learn to identify the correct pharmaceutical agents(s) for therapy and develop plans to monitor the results for effectiveness and safety in the pediatric primary care setting. Required of pediatric nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization; open to others with permission of the instructor. Two hours for eight weeks. N. Banasiak

851a, Clinical Management Outcome Improvement in Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing 2 credit hours. The provision of mental health services is determined by many factors including policy, public demand, research evidence, ideas among general practitioners and mental health professionals, and the financial pressures under which purchasers and providers of services work. These groups often have widely disparate views about the nature of mental disorders and their most appropriate interventions. In providing services to individuals, families, groups, systems, and organizations, the advanced practice psychiatric nurse functions as clinician, consultant, leader, educator, and researcher in the analysis of critical issues important to decision making and intervention. The assumption underlying the course is that all advanced practice mental health services should be fundamentally theoretical and evidence-based. In this course students define clinical problems and system implications, use technology to identify clinical and research evidence, and critically analyze the evidence. Based on this analysis they devise and present realistic plans for intervention in the clinical setting and write an evidence-based review paper summarizing the results. Discussion about what constitutes the best available evidence to clarify decision making with regard to a variety of mental health and health promotion needs is addressed. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the final year. J. Iennaco

855a, Group Psychotherapy Seminar 1.5 credit hours. This course examines methods and major conceptual frameworks of group psychotherapy, especially Yalom’s group therapy model. Emphasis is placed on the application of theory to the clinical realities of groups encountered in various inpatient and outpatient settings. This course examines various group treatment modalities and how they are useful in different psychiatric disorders and settings. The course demonstrates how group treatment choices are made through patient assessment; diagnosis; and cognitive, cultural, individual, and pharmacological considerations. Knowledge of group dynamics and systems theory is reviewed through the current literature and research. The lab portion of this course offers the opportunity for students to have a task group experience and examine group norms, process, communication patterns, roles, subgroups, stages of group development, and styles of leadership. Group psychotherapy is taught in the final year of the psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner specialty. A. de Lisser

859b, Clinical Psychopharmacology across the Life Span 2 credits. This course covers the principles of psychiatric pharmacotherapy across the life span and the role of the advanced practice psychiatric nurse prescriber. It focuses on biological mechanisms of action of psychotropic drugs; common side effects and adverse reactions; safety issues in prescribing psychotropic medications; and alterations needed in using these agents in specialty populations. The neurobiological components important in understanding symptom etiology and treatment are incorporated to select the most efficacious pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders. Pharmacological history, differential diagnoses, and symptoms targeted for pharmacological activity are incorporated as integral components of prescriptive practice. An emphasis on clinical decision making includes all phases of pharmacologic treatment: evaluation and diagnosis; initiation of treatment; determining efficacy; evaluating side effects; enhancing patient adherence; evaluation of response; long-term maintenance vs. discontinuation; patient education; and integration of psychotherapy. Sources of information include evidence-based data, treatment algorithms, established practice guidelines, textbooks, journal articles, and current conference proceedings. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization; others may be admitted with permission of the instructor. Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing Program Faculty

860a, Advanced Clinical Practice in Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing across the Life Span 6 credit hours. The aim of the fall-term, second-year clinical practicum is to promote development of clinical and leadership skills required for advanced professional practice across the life span in psychiatric–mental health nursing. Building on first-year clinical skills, students are expected to choose, implement, and evaluate advanced assessment and differential diagnostic reasoning skills, psychotherapeutic (e.g., group, individual, family) techniques, and psychopharmacological interventions with children, adolescents, adults, and older adults, and their families in a variety of psychiatric clinical settings. Ethnic, gender, and developmentally appropriate therapeutic, educational, and supportive intervention strategies are implemented for patients across the life span. Students are expected to collaborate with other health care providers in the care of their patients. Health promotion and disease prevention strategies are examined and prioritized in relation to promoting mental and physical health with ethnically diverse individuals, groups, and families. Role delineation, ethical and legal responsibilities, and clinical expectations related to prescriptive authority, evidence-based decision making, anticipatory guidance, and therapeutic psychiatric–mental health nursing care are explored. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the final year. Clinical practice is approximately 240 hours. Seminar meets weekly for two hours with Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing Program Faculty. Four credit hours for clinical practice and one-half credit hour for weekly, ninety-minute clinical supervision conferences. Faculty

861b, Applied Psychopharmacology across the Life Span 2 credit hours. This elective course builds on 859b and is designed to facilitate student expertise and confidence in prescribing the major categories of psychiatric medications to patients across the life span. The course is divided into eight major topic areas: antipsychotic, antidepressant, anti-anxiety, mood-stabilizing, hypnotic, stimulant, cognitive enhancement, and substance use treatment medications used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders across the life span. The concepts of sleep disruption, personality function, and pain management are integrated into each topic area. Each topic area includes two class sessions. The first reviews the biological mechanisms of action, common adverse events, drug-drug and drug-nutrient interactions, safety issues, and monitoring implications of the psychopharmacology category. The second is case-based, using real-life, interactive, Web-based cases for group problem solving and consensus building regarding the most appropriate psychopharmacological course of treatment incorporating legal-ethical and bio-psycho-social-cultural-spiritual components of care. Upon completion, students will be prepared to complete Phase 1 of the Neuroscience Education Institute’s Master Psychopharmacology Program. Suggested for psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the final year. Two hours per week. L. Powell

862b, Advanced Clinical Practice in Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing across the Life Span 6 credit hours. The aim of this final-term, second-year clinical practicum is to provide a clinical immersion experience with a specific patient population. Building on and enhancing the competencies of 860a, the emphasis of the course is on the integration and application of leadership, ethics, patient safety, quality improvement, systems, and care delivery principles in advanced practice psychiatric–mental health nursing. This course builds on the knowledge and competencies acquired throughout the program of study and the required clinical practica. Students gain increased competency and demonstrate increased accountability in the provision of comprehensive psychiatric–mental health care in the designated clinical site(s). Students expand practice experiences to include leadership and indirect clinical activities (e.g., consultation, supervision, or education; understanding of organizational systems and structures, policy and systems issues, and the professional advanced practice nursing role; collaboration and leadership) within their practice sites. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the final year. Prerequisite: first-year clinical and didactic requirements. Clinical practice is approximately 240 hours. Seminar meets weekly for two hours with Psychiatric–Mental Health Nursing Program Faculty.

865b, Family Psychotherapy Seminar 1.5 credit hours. This course provides an overview and critical analysis of family theories and conceptual models. The course examines the applicability of these models to guide advanced family psychiatric–mental health practice with children, adolescents, adults, and their families. The strengths and limitations of such models as Bowenian, cognitive-behavioral, structural, and problem-solving are compared and contrasted in relation to their potential to guide psychotherapy with children, adolescents, adults, and their families. The course content also examines how the selected family theories and conceptual models take into account and address the influence of cultural, social, and ethical issues, and of mental and physical health status, on the family systems over time. A lab component assists students in applying family theories and models to guide their assessment, treatment, and evaluation of family therapy with ethnically diverse families in a variety of inpatient and outpatient settings. One hour per week classroom and one-half credit hour per week clinical/laboratory = 1.5 hours in clinical lab activities per week. Required of psychiatric–mental health nurse practitioner students in the final year. A. de Lisser, S. Durso

895b, Advanced Clinical Pharmacology 2 credit hours. This course is designed for APRN and master’s-level students to build upon their introduction to drug therapy course. Principles of pharmacology are presented through the study of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Emphasis is placed on drug categories, mechanisms of action, and side effects. Following initial content on general principles, applied interpretation of some of the most common clinical indications and considerations for prescribing are addressed. Student participation demonstrates understanding of clinical applications of pharmacologic principles and concepts. Required of all M.S.N. students in the first year of specialization. Two hours per week. A. Castle

897b, Advanced Specialty Care Clinical Pharmacology 1 credit hour. This course is designed to prepare students to clinically apply pharmacotherapeutics from an advanced practice approach. Students learn to identify the correct pharmaceutical agents for therapy and to develop plans to monitor the results for effectiveness and safety in a variety of advanced practice nursing clinical settings. Students learn multiple methods for obtaining pharmacological information requisite to safely prescribe and monitor effects of their pharmacological selections. Required of adult/gerontology acute care, adult/gerontology primary care, family, and midwifery/women’s health nurse practitioner students in the first year of specialization. Taken concurrently with 895b. The hours per week are determined by the specialty.

901a, Research Methods I: Quantitative Methods for Health Research This course in research methods provides an opportunity to evaluate various scientific designs for investigating problems of importance to nursing and health, with a focus on quantitative research methods. Emphasis is placed on the interrelationships of the research question and study aims with study design and method—with the goal of understanding methods decisions that are made by researchers, and how these decisions influence study validity. The Yale Model for Generation of Knowledge for Evidence-Based Practice is introduced. The course prepares the student for designing a quantitative study. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Open to master’s students with permission of the instructor. Three hours per week. J. Dixon

901b, Research Methods II: Qualitative Methods for Health Research This course introduces the student to major approaches to qualitative research, including newer and innovative methods. Selected topics are presented linking qualitative approaches with stage of knowledge development and steps in the research process, including use of theory, design, conduct, analyses, rigor, reporting, and evaluation of qualitative research. Emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of qualitative methods and differences across qualitative approaches depending on the nature of the research question. The course includes practice with key elements of data collection, analysis, reporting, and critiquing. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Three hours per week. L. Sadler

903a, Research Methods III: Measurement of Health Variables This course focuses on theory of measurement and reliability and validity of research instruments—with emphasis on interaction of conceptual, methodological, and pragmatic considerations. An integration of seminar and lecture is employed. Required of all second-year Ph.D. students in nursing. Open to advanced graduate students in other schools of the University. Three hours per week for seven weeks. J. Dixon

904a/b, Doctoral Independent Study This elective is initiated by the student and negotiated with faculty. The purpose is to allow in-depth pursuit of individual areas of interest and/or practice. A written proposal must be submitted and signed by the student, the faculty member(s), and the program chairperson.

905a, Research Methods IV: Mixed Methods The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of mixed methods research. This overview consists of the history, philosophical foundations, purpose, data collection, analysis, and evaluation of the common mixed methods designs. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Three hours per week for seven weeks. R. Whittemore, M.T. Knobf

905b, Research Methods V: Intervention Development This seminar focuses on the research methods necessary for the understanding, developing, and testing of interventions to improve outcomes in health and illness. Content includes the use of various approaches to the development of biobehavioral interventions. The second half of the module deals with methodological issues in carrying out clinical intervention research. Required of all second-year Ph.D. students in nursing. Open to others with permission of the instructors. Three hours per week for seven weeks. M.T. Knobf, L. Sadler

907a/b, Dissertation Seminar This required doctoral course provides the student with advanced study and direction in research leading to development of the dissertation proposal and completion of the dissertation. Students are guided in the application of the fundamentals of scientific writing and criticism. All Ph.D. students in nursing are required to take this seminar every term. Three hours per month. N. Redeker

911a, Science, Scholarship, and Communication of Knowledge I This is the first course in a four-course sequence designed to socialize the student into the roles and responsibilities of a Ph.D.-prepared nurse scientist. Students develop specific beginning competencies necessary to engage in a career as an independent nurse scientist, including basic principles and processes of scientific writing and communication, and research priorities and strategies for building a program of research. The 911/915 seminar series accompanies the research practicum and is required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. One hour every other week. J. Taylor, R. Whittemore

911b, Science, Scholarship, and Communication of Knowledge II This is the second course in a four-course sequence designed to socialize the student into the roles and responsibilities of a Ph.D.-prepared nurse scientist. Students develop specific beginning competencies necessary to engage in a career as an independent nurse scientist, including basic principles and processes of grant writing and communicating research results. The 911/915 seminar series accompanies the research practicum and is required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. One hour every other week. R. Whittemore

913a, Foundations of Scientific Inquiry I: Philosophical and Theoretical Basis for Nursing Science In this course students examine the nature of the philosophical and theoretical basis for nursing science. The nature of science is explored through a dialogue of competing philosophical perspectives, such as logical positivism, post-positivism, historicism, critical theory, and post-structuralism. The philosophies that have informed the scientific process and the conceptual and theoretical underpinnings of nursing science are discussed. Specific approaches to concept/theory development and analysis, with linkages to philosophical perspectives, are examined. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Three hours per week. M. Lazenby, R. Whittemore

913b, Foundations of Scientific Inquiry II: Biopsychosocial Theories of Health; Symptom Management; Self-Management This course examines major conceptualizations of health and illness, self- and family management, and research supporting these conceptualizations. Emphasis is placed on the link between health and illness self-management, with particular emphasis on vulnerable populations, and related concepts such as symptom distress, self-efficacy and coping, and the contributions of risk and protective factors to self-management. Self-management is considered from both an individual and family perspective, and sociocultural influences on self-management are explored. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Three hours per week. N. Reynolds

915a, Science, Scholarship, and Communication of Knowledge III This is the third course in a four-course sequence designed to socialize the student into the roles and responsibilities of a Ph.D.-prepared nurse scientist. Students develop specific beginning competencies necessary to engage in a career as an independent nurse scientist, including basic principles and processes of peer review, responding to research critiques, and publishing research results. The 911/915 seminar series accompanies the research practicum and is required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. One hour every other week. N. Reynolds

915b, Science, Scholarship, and Communication of Knowledge IV This is the fourth course in a four-course sequence designed to socialize the student into the roles and responsibilities of a Ph.D.-prepared nurse scientist. Students develop specific beginning competencies necessary to engage in a career as an independent nurse scientist, including basic principles and processes of grant management, mentorship, career planning, and roles and responsibilities of the nurse scientist and leader. The 911/915 seminar series accompanies the research practicum and is required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. One hour every other week. N. Reynolds

917b, Advanced Statistics for Clinical Nursing Research This term-long course starts with linear regression and advances to additional multivariate analyses most commonly used in nursing studies. The emphasis is on attaining a conceptual understanding of these statistical techniques, selecting appropriate techniques for a given clinical research problem, conducting computer-assisted data analyses, and correctly expressing the results of such analyses. The laboratory part of the course covers fundamentals of data management and statistical analysis, and proceeds to the conduct of advanced analyses. The course emphasizes using programming language in SAS®. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing; open to master’s students with permission of the instructor. Four hours per week (two hours seminar, two hours lab). M. Holland

923a, Current Issues in Cardiovascular Nursing Research Students examine current issues in cardiovascular nursing research. Topics vary each year to reflect the current state of the science. Prerequisites: clinical background in cardiovascular nursing and doctoral-student standing. Open to others with permission of the instructor. Two hours every other week and thirty hours at the Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association. M. Funk

927b, Research in Care of People with Cancer or at Risk for Cancer and Their Families This course focuses on the current state of the science in care of people with cancer, or at risk for cancer, and their families. Specific attention is paid to factors associated with quality-of-life outcomes, such as symptoms, functional status, and affect; and factors that place people at high risk, such as family history, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. Research from nursing, medicine, and the social sciences is discussed. Two hours per week. M.T. Knobf

929b, Ethical Conduct of Clinical Research The course introduces major concepts in the ethical conduct of clinical research from the perspective of the advanced practice nurse and the nurse-researcher. National and international ethical codes for research and regulatory requirements are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on the protection of vulnerable populations and community-based research, including international research. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Open to others with permission of the instructor. One hour per week. L. Sadler

931b, Creating Methods: Innovation and Synthesis This elective doctoral seminar explores methodological development in nursing and health research, through illustration of how methodological perspectives are conceptualized and systematically analyzed, in order to prepare the learner to contribute to the methods literature. During the first part of the course, we examine methods papers of various types. Each student prepares a methods paper of publishable quality. Ideally, this may become a methods paper for the dissertation. There is a focus on advanced quantitative design, including large datasets and secondary analysis. J. Dixon

941a, Health Policy, Leadership, and Systems The course addresses salient issues in health policy and the challenges to linking research and clinical care with public and private policy agendas. The course covers the following topics: health care delivery systems; policy and political factors that affect access to care and its financing, delivery, and quality; challenges to evidence-based policy and the dissemination of research findings to policy and community-based leaders. It also includes theories of leadership and policy change relevant to students’ research topics. Critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and research-based analysis are integrated throughout the course. A major written assignment suitable for submission to a peer-reviewed journal (or that can be easily modified for same) is a course requirement. Prerequisite: students must pass a test based on the online Yale University School of Nursing Health Policy Module. Required of all Ph.D. students in nursing. Three hours per week. L. Summers

955a, Ethical Analysis in Health Care 2 credit hours. This course explores influential theories of health care ethics and draws on them to identify and analyze both common and complex ethical challenges in health care settings and systems, with attention to domestic and global concerns. Through readings, writing assignments, case study discussions, and projects, participants develop critical thinking, critical writing, ethical reflection, and group process skills integral to leadership in ethics, with close attention to the role of the nurse-leader in ethics education and organizational policy development. The course is designed for individuals who have significant clinical and administrative experience. Required of D.N.P. students in the first year. Four monthly three-hour on-campus sessions combined with Web-based instruction. M. Lazenby

957a, Evidence 3 credit hours. This course explores the nature of evidence as it relates to the discipline of nursing. Literature and evidence within and outside of nursing are critically appraised for translation to and evaluation of practice. The course examines the five evidentiary tasks (we ask answerable questions about what is evidence for that about which we are concerned; we acquire that evidence and appraise it; we apply this evidence to that about which we are concerned; and we evaluate) as bases for evaluating current evidence. The course also uses a variety of population-based health data as integral sources for examining variances in evidence related to health outcomes among diverse populations. Using the five evidentiary tasks, students are expected to select a health issue/problem and to critically review and integrate evidence from diverse sources (literature, research, and population-based health data) to develop best practice guidelines that address the health issue/problem. Students also are expected to develop a related policy and/or evidence-based implementation strategies that have the potential to improve the health issue/problem. Required of D.N.P. students in the first year. Taken concurrently with 958a. R. McCorkle

958a, Practicum: Evidence 1 credit hour. Taken concurrently with 957a, this leadership practicum offers a faculty-mentored leadership experience designed to enable the student to translate evidenced-based principles and content into best practices with diverse populations outside, within, and/or across a variety of local, national, and/or international health care systems or organizations. In this leadership practicum, students apply knowledge and skills from 957a, in which they select health issue/problem. Mentored by the librarian resource team, they develop answerable questions in order to acquire, critically review, and integrate evidence from diverse sources and begin to formulate the foundation for the capstone by creating a matrix of the literature to support the fifteen-page capstone paper, the final assignment for 957a. J. Coviello

963b, Transformational Leadership in Professional Education 2 credit hours. This course focuses on innovative methods in intra- and interprofessional education and includes a review and critique of the principles of transformational leadership as they relate to higher education. Transformational leadership includes the ability to develop educational goals and purpose that aim to fully engage learners in the teaching-learning process. Students explore professional and patient education in light of the political, social, economic, legal, safety, and cultural contexts that are informed by the literature, applied theoretical knowledge, and policy, culminating in an applied teaching practicum. Required of D.N.P. students in the first year. Taken concurrently with 964b. J. Coviello

964b, Educational Leadership Practicum 2 credit hours. Taken concurrently with 963b, this leadership practicum offers a faculty-mentored teaching experience designed to enable the student to translate evidence-based principles and practices of education content into best practices with diverse populations outside, within, and/or across a variety of local, national, and/or international health care systems or organizations. In this leadership practicum and seminar, students apply knowledge and skills learned in 963b to a teaching/learning experience mentored by D.N.P. faculty. The seminar acts as a forum for students to discuss and present their educational dilemma, design a teaching plan that is aimed at creative problem solving, and present the evaluation of the class they teach. Students select a topic related to a current issue in professional education. The topic includes a chosen teaching modality using current technology to demonstrate strategies available to educators as they consider the needs of “students” (target group) in various learning environments. There are two presentations, one at midterm to introduce the topic and one at the end of the teaching practicum. The final presentation occurs on-site at the end of the term. The group is expected to demonstrate their teaching practicum and their chosen modality (i.e., Skype, WEBX, Prezi, etc.). The last part of the practicum is a five-page paper that describes the chosen educational dilemma and audience, the plan for approach (description and objectives), and “student” evaluations as well as a critique of the chosen modality and its perceived effectiveness. J. Coviello

967c, Theory and Application of Project Management 1.5 credit hours. This course provides an overview of theoretical principles and concepts essential to assessing, designing, implementing, and evaluating population-based health projects within and across the health system and other organizations. In this course, students critically examine change, decision making, evaluation, and management-related theories as a foundation for project planning, implementation, and evaluation of an evidence-based improvement project. Students identify and develop a theory-based project derived from an integrated synthesis of the literature. Students also identify appropriate software, tools, and communication techniques essential for leading an interprofessional team from inception to completion of the project within and across health care systems or other organizations. The tools and processes learned in this course will support work toward the subsequent capstone experience. Taught as an intensive during the summer intersession. Required of D.N.P. students in the first year. M. Davies

971a, Health Care Policy, Politics, and Process 4 credit hours. This course provides an overview of past and current health policy literature and research. It also provides the student with the opportunity to critically analyze basic concepts, principles, and consequences of policy options for achieving selected health services goals across the spectrum of health and health care systems. It is built upon the understanding that health care delivery is the transformation of health science into health service. Students increase their aptitude in the three P’s—policy, politics, and process—in order to shape health care delivery changes. Policy, politics, and process occur in organizational, state, tribal, and federal spaces. In this era of sweeping health reform, it is imperative that students understand the players, the interactions, and the routes to change. The class discusses contemporary policy changes and debates. Students examine a policy relevant to their own work. Required of D.N.P. students in the second year. This is a hybrid course, taken concurrently with 972a. L. Summers

972a, Policy Leadership Practicum 1 credit hour. Taken concurrently with 971a, this practicum offers the student a faculty-mentored clinical experience that is designed to enable the student to translate evidence-based principles of health policy content into best practices with diverse populations outside, within, and/or across a variety of local, national, and/or international health care systems or organizations. The student is expected to maintain a log of committed time dedicated to the selected practicum. Forty-five hours total, averaging three hours per week. Students are to maintain their clinical practicum hours in e-portfolio. Faculty

977b, The Business of Health Care 3 credit hours. This course is designed to introduce students to the principles of economics, finance, and business operations within the context of the health care system and organizations. Essential economic and financial theory for the health care decision maker is examined within institutional, local, and national environments. Principles and theories of finance methodology are an intricate part of the discussions related to public and private financing within and across health care delivery systems. The relationships among health care systems, financial decision making, and current and emerging electronic clinical database systems are examined. Required of D.N.P. students in the second year. J. Kunisch

981b, Organizational Behavior and Leadership: Applications in Health Care 3 credit hours. In this course, students analyze and apply principles of contemporary leadership and administration. Students develop self-awareness of their leadership abilities and develop a plan to enhance areas for development. Building on previous courses in the D.N.P. program, especially regarding ethics, evidence for practice, and business applications, students analyze case studies in nursing leadership and suggest the best courses of action. The emphasis is on strategic thinking and quality improvement in health care delivery, policy, and regulatory environments. Students are expected to critically examine and integrate selected leadership styles and apply differing approaches to different situations. In the companion practicum, students are expected to apply the principles learned in a mentored leadership experience in a health care delivery organization or other organizations (e.g., community-based health centers), nursing education, regulatory, or policy setting environments. Required of D.N.P. students in the second year. J. Krauss

982b, Leadership Practicum 1.5 credit hours. Students participate in a mentored leadership initiative in a clinical, educational, or regulatory environment or with local and national policy makers. The expected outcome is a final scholarly paper that applies and evaluates their evidence-based leadership model and related strategies to an agreed upon leadership initiative. The students, in collaboration with their assigned mentor(s), identify the change initiative and develop a timeline for the negotiated deliverables. Required of all D.N.P. students. A total of forty-five clinical hours is required, and the students are expected to negotiate with their assigned mentor how these hours will be scheduled. Students are expected to keep a reflective log of their activities on the electronic “portfolio” compilation program provided in the learning management system labeled as “practica.” Faculty

985c, Achieving Population Health Equity 2 credit hours. This course provides a critical overview of the historical and contemporary health and health disparities research, relevant literature, and policies as essential context for understanding how to achieve health equity. The social and biological determinants of health and health disparities are also critically examined in light of political, economic, cultural, legal, and ethical issues. Selected health and health disparities population-based data are examined as a foundation for explicating how subpopulations experience disparate health across the life span. Students examine how past and current policies (state, federal, tribal), politics, population-based data findings, and selected frameworks enhance or act as barriers to achieving health equity with diverse populations, systems, and/or communities. Additionally, students design an organizational policy plan for achieving population health and health equity within a health system, organization, and/or community-based health system. M. Okafor

989a, D.N.P. Capstone Project Seminar 2 credit hours. This course is designed to help students integrate D.N.P. course content and practica into a final capstone proposal. Common conceptual framework and models of care are presented. Methods for developing and evaluating capstone projects are discussed. Strategies to establish project working relationships are explored. During this course, draft proposals are reviewed using the Guidelines for Developing and Implementing a D.N.P. Capstone project, with the addition of rubrics for evaluation of the work. Students present their proposal for critique by their capstone adviser and faculty of record in order to finalize their proposal for defense. Required of D.N.P. students. J. Dixon, D.N.P. faculty, and additional content experts

989b, D.N.P. Capstone Project Seminar 2 credit hours. This course is designed to assist students as they integrate D.N.P. course content and clinical practica into a final capstone proposal. Students are expected to work in concert with their assigned capstone adviser during the spring term of their second year on the development of their final proposal. Draft proposals are reviewed using the Guidelines for Developing and Implementing a D.N.P. Capstone project, with the addition of rubrics for evaluation of the work. The student is expected to present his/her proposal for critique by his/her peers, capstone adviser, and course instructor. Required of D.N.P. students. Three hours per week. R. McCorkle, D.N.P. faculty, and additional content experts

998a/b, Leadership Immersion Practicum 5 credits. The leadership capstone immersion is a yearlong, mentored experience in which students apply relevant knowledge to an evidence-based experience culminating in a final D.N.P. capstone project in 999. Students employ effective communication and collaboration skills to influence improved health care quality and safety and to negotiate successful changes in care delivery processes within and/or across health and health care systems and organizations. Students complete the immersion under guidance of the site mentor, who will be a member of the nursing faculty capstone adviser/committee under the leadership of the capstone chair and the D.N.P. director. Prerequisites: successful completion of all required theoretical and capstone courses as well as an approved capstone proposal. 225 practicum hours. Faculty

999a/b, Final D.N.P. Capstone Project 5 credit hours. Students apply relevant knowledge to an evidence-based, yearlong experience culminating in a final D.N.P. capstone project manuscript, which will be submitted for publication. The D.N.P. capstone project includes critical review and integration of relevant literature/research that provides support of the identified population-based health issue or problem, as well as at least one policy and/or evidence-based strategy that has the potential to address that health issue or problem. Required of D.N.P. students in the final year.

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Courses in Yale College

Advanced courses in various departments of Yale College may be elected by students enrolled in the School of Nursing if schedule conflicts prevent them from obtaining particular course content on the graduate level. To enroll in a course offered by Yale College, students must first obtain permission from their adviser, the instructor of the course, and the departmental director of undergraduate studies. The elected course must be listed on the student’s School of Nursing course schedule within the prescribed period for course registration.

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Courses in Yale University Graduate and Professional Schools

Students in the School of Nursing may elect courses offered by the various departments of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and other professional schools of the University. In the past, students have elected courses from the School of Medicine; courses in Sociology, Psychology, and Anthropology at the Graduate School; and courses offered by the Schools of Art, Divinity, Law, Management, Music, and Public Health. Students are encouraged to consult the bulletins of these schools, in which course offerings are listed and described, to seek content that may be relevant to their individual educational goals. Subject to the approval of the student’s adviser, the instructor of the course, and the departmental director of graduate studies, the elected course must be listed on the student’s School of Nursing course schedule within the prescribed period for course registration. Students should also check with the registrar of the individual school in which the course is elected for registration procedures specific to that school.

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